• Unit Title
    Growth of Industrial and Urban America

     

    Instructional Organization

     

    Note to Teachers: 

     

    • Freedom Tracking Notebook:  Students will be using a Freedom Tracking Notebook (FTN) throughout the course.  It is advised that each student have a spiral notebook to serve as their FTN. During the course, this notebook will be used to reflect on freedom, its influence, and its changing meaning in American history by questions such as: How has the meaning of freedom changed? How has it remained the same? How has the idea of freedom influenced the actions of individuals and groups?  How has the idea of freedom affected Americans and American policy in the world?  While specific references to using the Freedom Tracking Notebook occur in the lessons throughout this course, teachers are encouraged to create additional or alternative opportunities for students to think and write about freedom.

     

    • Textbook: This course assumes that students will have an American History textbook, but does not recommend a particular one. The lessons identify specific topics for students to read and it is incumbent on the teacher to identify the location of this topic in their textbook. 

     

    • Readings: Many lessons reference student readings (including textbook topics). It is recommended that these readings be assigned prior to the lesson.

     

     

    Lesson 1: Industrialism in America

     

    Content Expectations:  USHG 6.1.1

     

    Key Concepts: disparity of wealth, immigration, industrialization, labor movements, mechanization, migration, populism, urbanization

     

    Abstract: In this lesson students learn about the Industrial Revolution in the United States and the factors that caused it.  Prior to this lesson, students should have read about the causes of the American Industrial Revolution in their text. Alternatively, provide students with the reading “Wake Up America” located at <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/historyofus/web04/index.html>.

     

    Begin the lesson by providing students with a working definition of industrialism.  Inform them that the replacement of human and animal muscle by machine power originated in the Ancient World.  Explain to the class that there have been different stages of industrial development (such as the coal, steam and iron phase to oil, electrical, and chemical to nuclear and computers).  Ask them to engage in a “quick write” describing what they think the next phase will be. They should also explain why they anticipate things moving in that direction.  After students share their responses with a partner, have a few students share their responses with the whole class.

     

    Write the following question on the board:  How did geography, technology, people, and government cause the growth of industrial and urban America?”  Explain to students that they are going to focus on developing an answer to that question.  Then, show them a short video on the American Industrial Revolution as an introduction to the topic using United Streaming (http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/, search for “An Introduction to the American Industrial Revolution.”) Next, distribute copies of “Resource 1:  US Industrialization Process in the Late 19th Century” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) to students. Using an overhead transparency of the article or a document camera, demonstrate to students how to highlight significant information from the article. Note that the article is rather dense so it is suggested that students and teacher read the article once before re-reading and highlighting. Discuss what would be highlighted in each paragraph and why.

     

    Divide the class into groups of four students each.  Assign each student in the group one of the following topics to research:  (a) geography and natural resources (availability and use); (b) post-Reconstruction technological innovations or inventions (c) changes in transportation; (d) immigration and labor.  Distribute the “Industrial Revolution Research Sheet” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) to students. Some websites that might be helpful to students are listed in the “Research Websites” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) as well. Provide students with computer or library access to research the role that their topic played in causing or promoting industrialization in the United States. Allow about 20-25 minutes for students to research.

     

    Have students with the same topic meet in small groups to discuss and share their findings. Then, have students return to their original groups. As students present their research, have them use the “Industrial Revolution Graphic Organizer” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) to record information from their group members.

     

    Debrief the small group discussion with the entire class, having students consider the most important factor leading to industrialization in the United States.  Note that a Reference Guide has been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2). They should understand that there is no right or wrong answer to this question but by attempting to evaluate data in this manner students sharpen their analytical skills and reinforce their capacity to assess the worth or value of events or processes. End the lesson by having students complete an “exit slip” in which they write one question they still have on a sticky note and turn it in to the teacher upon their exit. Review sticky notes to address students’ question at the beginning of the next lesson. 

     

     

    Lesson 2:  Big Business and Captains of Industry

     

    Content Expectations:  USHG 6.1.1

     

    Key Concepts: disparity of wealth, industrialization, mechanization, Social Darwinism

                                 

    Abstract: In this lesson students are introduced to the rise of big business and the role of intelligent and energetic individuals in that process.  They confront the ongoing controversy surrounding these “captains of industry” according to some or “robber barons” in the eyes of others.           

     

    Begin the lesson by reviewing and explaining any questions students raised in the exit slips turned in at the end of the previous lesson.  Then, tell students that they are going to examine big business and entrepreneurs in this lesson. Explain to the class that economic concentration, or the grouping of business activity in the hands of fewer and fewer people, is a global trend that preceded the establishment of the United States as an independent nation and which, according to many, continues today. Have students take notes as you describe the business attitudes, practices, and governmental efforts that enabled industrialists to thrive during the late nineteenth century.  (Note that there is a rough outline in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) for students to use if desired).

    ·        Laissez-faire philosophy – This is an economic doctrine outlined by Adam Smith in his work, The Wealth of Nations that was popular during the industrial age. It opposed government regulation or interference in commerce beyond that which was necessary for a free-enterprise system to operate according to its own economic laws. In the modern age, Bear Stearns’ debacle on March 16, 2008 was seen by critics of modern finance as the inevitable consequence of the laissez-faire philosophy that allowed financial services to innovate and spread almost unchecked.

    ·        Social Darwinism – A philosophy that applied Darwin’s theory of evolution to social conditions.  This theory held that the strongest and fittest (in other words, the rich and powerful) showed through their very success that they were best adapted to the social ad economic climate of the time.  The weak and unfit (in other words, poor and less powerful) had demonstrated that they could not adapt and should be allowed to die off.  Not surprisingly, this theory was promoted by wealth Americans, who argued further that it was normal, natural, and proper for the strong to survive at the expense of the weak and it would be wrong to interfere with natural selection by artificially propping up poor people through social welfare programs. The theory was also used to justify big businesses’ refusal to acknowledge labor unions and similar organizations.

    ·        Government assistance for railroads, including funding and land grants - United States government assistance of railroad construction between 1860 and 1900 enabled commerce and industry to boom.  But, building a railroad was an expensive venture. Private banks, fearing the railroad companies would need a long time to pay off their debts, were reluctant to loan money to the companies. To remedy the situation, Congress provided assistance to the railroad companies in the form of land grants. The land grant railroads, receiving millions of acres of public land, sold the land to make money, built their railroads, and contributed to a more rapid settlement of the West. In the end, four out of the five transcontinental railroads were built with help from the federal government.  Even today, the railroads and the towns they founded continue to shape the geographical and economic landscape of the American West.

     

    Display or distribute the “U.S. Western Railway Land Grants” and “Millions of Acres” materials located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2). Explain to students that the map shows which land Congress gave the railroads, and the other document is an announcement for the sale of railroad lands.  Discuss these with items with the class using the following questions: Why do you think Congress made land available to the railroads in the places and configurations shown on the map? What incentives did the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company offer to potential land buyers? Why do you think the company chose to use the poster as a marketing device? Why might prospective settlers at that time found this offer appealing?

     

    Next, discuss new forms of business organizations such as corporations and trusts and explain vertical and horizontal integration. For a good resource, see The Corporate Revolution. Digital History. 13 February 2009 <http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=196>.

     

    It can be helpful to think of these forms of business organization as technologies.  Although they are not tangible like the moving assembly line, they too represent innovations which contributed to the transformation of the American economy during this era. The rise of big business and trusts in this period is a defensive measure, reacting to severe “boom and bust” cycles on a scale that no one had seen before.

     

    ·        A corporation is a legal entity with rights and responsibilities separate from its owners (the shareholders).  Shareholders invest in the corporation by buying stock in the corporation. Through the purchase of stock, a corporation raises capital.  The corporation then shares its profits with its shareholders in the form of dividend payments.  The shareholder is not liable for the debts of the corporation, but only stands to lose his or her investment (purchase price of the stock).  Corporations can hold property and do not end on the death of the shareholders (as distinguished from partnerships and sole proprietorships). Some characteristics of corporations include:

    o       Delegated Management – control of the company is placed in the hands of a board of directors.

    o       Limited Liability of Shareholders  - shareholders only stand to lose their investment and are not liable for the corporations debts

    o       Investor Ownership by Shareholders – shareholders become owners of part of the corporation through the purchase of shares of stock

    o       Separate legal entity – A corporation can sue and be sued in its name and can hold property – it thus has some of the same legal protections as persons

    o       Transferable Shares – shares of stocks can be bought and sold, usually on an exchange such as the New York Stock Exchange

    ·        Trust – This is a form of business merger in which the major stockholders in several corporations turn over their stock to a group of trustees.  In other words, separate firms are placed under a single control.  Reflecting the belief that trusts interfered with fair play, the government passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890, which made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade.

    ·        Vertical Integration - Vertical integration occurs when a company takes over and becomes the owner of its suppliers, distributors, and transportation systems to gain total control of the quality and cost of its product.  In other words, you control the whole process, from the extraction of raw materials through manufacture and distribution.  This can also be described as a cartel or, in some cases, a monopoly. 

    ·        With horizontal integration, companies that make similar products merge into one. This also can become a monopoly. This type of business practice was used by Andrew Carnegie.

    ·        Economies of Scale - This refers to the economic principle that large plants can produce at a lower cost than smaller competitors because the cost per unit falls as the volume of output rises.  The effect of economies of scale can be seen in the  purchase of consumer goods.  If you are buying a small quantity of Advil at the corner store, it would cost more per pill than if you bought the large two-bottle quantity offered at Costco or Sam’s Club.

     

    After completing the descriptions above, have students compare their notes with a partner. Discuss any questions or inconsistencies students might have. 

     

    Next, distribute copies of “Dual Column Notes: Rockefeller and Carnegie” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) to students. Have students read about John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie using their textbooks and the following websites.

    ·        Rockefeller - http://www.pbs.org/wnet/historyofus/web09/segment4.html

    ·        Carnegie - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/peopleevents/pande01.html

    Have students use the handout to take notes and reflect on their thoughts about each individual. Note that this step might be assigned for homework.

     

    Next, have half of the students read an excerpt from Ida Tarbell’s writings on Standard Oil and Rockefeller located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2).  Have the other half of the class read about Carnegie using the handout “The Homestead Strike” in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2). Then, engage students in a discussion of whether Rockefeller and Carnegie were “Captains of Industry” or “Robber Barons”. Begin the discussion by defining each on the board as follows:

     

    Captains of Industry: Usually held to imply that the person so described was intelligent, innovative, hardworking and mainly a decent person whose works and methods were mostly honorable and caused far greater good than harm.

     

    Robber Barons: Usually held to imply that the person so described was also intelligent, hardworking and innovative but used methods and caused changes which overall were far more destructive than beneficial.

     

    Encourage students to continue taking notes during the discussion using the “Dual Column Notes” handout. At the end of the discussion, have students use the back of the handout to make a decision on whether they see Carnegie and/or Rockefeller as Robber Barons or Captains of Industry.

     

    Conclude the lesson by having students write in their Freedom Tracking Notebook to answer the following questions:  

    ·        How did the activities of Rockefeller and Carnegie enhance or promote freedom?  How did they restrict or limit freedom?

    ·        Could or should government have done more than it did to protect the freedom of the American people? Why or why not?

     

     

    Lesson  3: Immigration and Migration

     

    Content Expectations: USHG F1.1; USHG 6.1.1; USHG 6.1.3; USHG 6.1.4; C6.1.2

     

    Key Concepts: ethnicity, immigration, migration, urbanization

     

    Abstract: In this lesson students are introduced to the mass movements of people coming to and migrating within the United States during the second half of the 19th century.

     

    Prior to the lesson, have students read about the immigrant experience in their textbook and the handout “Arrival” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2). Begin the lesson by discussing why people leave a place and why they decide to settle in a particular place (push and pull factors of migration) based upon their readings. Next, distribute the “Data Packet” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) to students and have them work with a partner for a few minutes to identify trends. Discuss some of their observations with the whole class. Continue discussing the charts using the following questions:

    ·        From where did most immigrants come -- western Europe, eastern Europe, southern Europe, Latin America or Asia?

    ·        Which decade saw the greatest number of immigrants arrive?    What might have caused this?

    ·        Which decade saw the greatest number of immigrants depart?  What might have caused this?

     

    Continue the lesson by having students reflect upon the status of the newly arrived immigrants.  What were living conditions like for the new arrivals?  If students have difficulty answering the question, have them read the two immigration handouts located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 3). Instruct students to interact with the text by underlining and circling things that interest them, and to write notes in the margin summarizing what they are reading.  Encourage students to consider how bewildering things must have been for many immigrants.  Some native born Americans welcomed them, others ignored them, and still others resented and exploited the immigrants. 

     

    Next, show students the six minute video segment called “Building New York City” in World History: The Modern Era from United Streaming <http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=8EF18FCE-F762-44B9-9EBD-74A51C245982&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US> (use title in the search function to locate).  Have students engage in small group discussions (6 students per group) using the following questions: 

    ·        How might the immigrant experience have influenced ideas of freedom and equality? 

    ·        How did the ideals of freedom and equality as delineated in the foundational documents apply to immigrants?

    ·        How did these ideals affect native-born Americans as they interacted with or observed immigrants?

     

    Conclude the lesson by having students reflect in their Freedom Tracking Notebook, using one of the following questions:

    ·        Were immigrants free in the same sense that native born Americans were?  Explain.

    ·        How did the ideas of freedom and equality reflect and influence the immigrant experience?

     

    Alternatively, have students pretend they are an immigrant who has recently arrived in the U.S., now writing (or possibly dictating if illiterate) a letter home to their family in the “old country.”  What is life like in the U.S.?  Is it what they expected?  Why or why not?  Have students be specific in immigrant identity – for example, 20 year old Italian man in 1898.  If they know of an immigrant ancestor in their own family, they could choose that identity.

     

     

    Lesson 4: Consequences of Industrialization

     

    Content Expectations: USHG 6.1.2; USHG 6.1.3; USHG 6.1.4

     

    Key Concepts:  ethnicity, labor movements, migration, urbanization

     

    Abstract: In this lesson students examine the multifaceted and ongoing impact of industrialization on the United States.  They consider changing demographic patterns, the increasing rate of technological innovation, environmental costs, and the social consequences of the transition from human and animal muscle to machine production.  In doing so, they consider the question:  How did industrialization transform life in late 19th and early 20th century America?

     

    Begin the lesson by writing the focus question on the board:  How did industrialization transform life in late 19th and early 20th century America?  Present a brief lecture to the class on the impact of industrialism on the United States.  This is best done by dividing your presentation/discussion into five parts:  demographic changes, urbanization, increased rate of technological innovation, environmental impact, and social consequences. Instruct students to take notes on the lecture.

     

    In discussing the demographic transformation, be sure to inform the class that there were religious, ethnic, class, and racial changes in the composition of the population of the United States, as well as a shift from America being primarily “rural centered” to “urban centered”.   Make copies and distribute the chart “Demographic Changes” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) and discuss the data with students.

     

    In discussing urbanization, focus on the rapid growth of existing cities and the emergence of new ones. Also address how migration from rural areas and immigration from abroad fueled the growth of cities. Students should be aware of the deplorable living conditions in immigrant and working class neighborhoods, as well as the appeal of ethnic neighborhoods to immigrants.  Show students an overhead transparency of “Ethnic and Class Groupings in Milwaukee, 1850-1890” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2).  Discuss the map with students, using the following questions:

    ·        What does this map show you?

    ·        What generalizations can be made from this map?  What evidence supports that statement?

    ·        Why do you think people settled in Milwaukee in this manner?

    ·        What advantages might ethnic neighborhoods have provided their residents?

    ·        What might have been some disadvantages of living in ethnic enclaves?

    For additional visuals, see http://www.vbhssocialstudies.com/apus/powerpoint/chapter18.ppt or

    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/riseind/city/city.html.

     

    Using the “Industrial Revolution Inventors” chart located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2), discuss the increasing rate of technological innovation. Students should be familiar with some of the inventions from Lesson 1.  As the impact of these inventions on commerce and business are discussed, focus students’ attention on how many new inventions came upon the scene in a relatively short time.

     

    In discussing environmental impact, be sure to identify the consequences of industrialization such as the depletion of some resources, pollution (both air and water), and erosion caused in some areas by deforestation.  Explain to the students that they now going to engage in a timed reading. They will be experiencing several of these throughout the course. Explain that these are intended to serve as ACT prep and that each time they have a timed reading, the timing will be shortened in order to prepare them for the time constraints of the ACT. Give students a copy of the “Timed Reading (ACT Prep)” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2). Have students read the excerpt and answer the questions that follow in a timed reading for 15 minutes.    After reviewing the answers as a class, have students compile a list of some of the environmental consequences of urbanization and industrialization with a partner and discuss the lists with the class. (Note: For extension, students can investigate changes to the environment that have occurred in their own town or nearby city).

     

    Finally, discuss how these changes led to some significant social problems. Construct a list of problems on the board as students share some of the concerns raised by industrialization, immigration, and urbanization (e.g., housing, sanitation, pollution, and racial, class, religious and ethnic tension). Next, ask students for a definition of “class”.  Explain to them that the descriptions of class have changed over time and from society to society.  To illustrate you might use Ancient China (scholar gentry, peasants, artisans and merchants) or the caste system of Ancient India (priests, warriors, merchants and peasants).  Ask them to describe class divisions within contemporary American society.  What is it exactly that determines one’s membership in a class?  After addressing the issue of class, have students look at how cities were divided by race, class, and ethnicity and the resulting tensions within and between groups.  It might be useful to refer to the “Ethnic and Class Groupings in Milwaukee, 1850-1890” used earlier in the lesson. Have students read “Excerpt from:  Ethnic and Race Relations in the City of Cleveland,” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2).  Have students turn and talk with a partner, responding to the following questions: 

    ·        How did diversity lead to conflict in urban settings?

    ·        How did public education work to ease ethnic tensions?

    ·        Which of the social problems is most recognizable today?

     

    Have students consider the information from the lesson by asking them how characteristics such as urbanization, immigration, and industrialization fed upon each other, resulting in them being both a cause and consequence of the others.  For example, industrialization concentrates jobs in areas with better access to resources and favorable for transportation.  This process is faster and more profitable for owners if they have cheap labor.  Immigrants are frequently compelled to work for less pay and attracted to the new work opportunities.  Therefore immigrants “push” the move toward industrialization and are, at the same time, “pulled” by the emerging cities which are also a cause and effect of the process.  Conclude the lesson by having students either construct a cover for Time Magazine that depicts or write an essay that describes one of the following: 

    ·        How geography, technology, people, and government caused the growth of industrial and urban America.

    ·        How industrialization transformed life in late 19th and early 20th century America.

     

    Lesson 5: Early Response to Industrialism:  Populism

     

    Content Expectations: USHG F1.1; USHG 6.1.2

     

    Key Concepts:  disparity of wealth, industrialization, mechanization, populism

     

    Abstract: In this lesson, students learn about one of the early responses to industrialism – populism. They explore how Populists’ demands sought to address the major economic and social problems facing American society in the 1890s.

     

    Prior to the lesson, have students read about populism in their texts.  As they read, have students take notes answering the first four questions on the “What is Populism?” sheet located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2).  Note that students should complete only the left column of each box in conjunction with the reading.

     

    Begin the lesson by explaining to students that populism is an American reform movement that started in the last third of the nineteenth century as a massive grassroots campaign committed to economic reform and to improving conditions for farmers and laborers. Explain to the class that Populism was an American, primarily rural based reform movement which attempted to save the masses of family owned and operated farms from the onslaught of railroads, tight credit, and mechanized agriculture.  Populists were also concerned with the plight of miners and urban workers, but the core focus was on rural America. Translating economic issues into political terms, reformers founded the Populist Party in 1892.  Although the Populist Party never won a presidential election, it had significant success at the state level. The Populist presidential candidate of 1896, William Jennings Bryan, proclaimed himself sympathetic to the causes of the Farmer's Alliance, the National Grange (a reform-minded agricultural organization), as well as the nation's working class. The Populist Party was eventually absorbed by the Democratic Party, but remains in our political vernacular as a person or group concerned with average working class people.  Note that the sheet “Views on Populism” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) may be made into an overhead transparency to use in your discussion.

     

    Divide students into groups of three and have them engage in a “Think Aloud” of the Populist Party Platform from 1892, located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2). In a read aloud, students make their thinking visible by talking about what they read and expressing what they are thinking as they read.  The reading can be divided into three parts, one for each student:  Preamble; Platform, and Expression of Sentiments.  Afterward, engage students in a class discussion using the first four questions on the “What is Populism” sheet as a guide. Have students add new information to the right-hand column of the charts.

     

    Next, show students the Bill Moyers interview with Historian Nell Painter at: <http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/02292008/watch2.html>. Discuss the following questions with the class after the interview:

    ·        How did populism reflect class issues?

    ·        Are the moneyed interests unavoidably at odds with common people?

    ·        How did the most recent election play on populist ideas?

     

    Have students read the “Cross of Gold Speech” located in the Supplemental Materials while listening to it at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5354/%20-cross%20of%20gold%20speech%20audio%20and%20transcript.  In order to help students assess the significance of the speech, remind them of the “Strategies for Doing History” from Unit 1 (and also located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2)  for convenience). Review the sourcing and contextualizing strategies with students prior to playing the speech.  As students read along with the audio of the speech, remind them to pay close attention and to consider exactly what is being said and the particular words and phrases used (close reading). After listening to the speech, have students work with a partner to complete the Sound Recording Analysis Sheet located at http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/sound_recording_analysis_worksheet.pdf. Discuss students’ analyses.  Then engage students in a class discussion of the following questions:

    ·        Did the populist movement threaten the free enterprise system or seek to preserve it? Explain.

    ·        What were the main obstacles the populist reformers encountered in attempting to promote the interests of their constituents?  Which obstacle was the most formidable?  Explain your choice.

    ·        Were the failures of the populist movement inevitable or unavoidable?  Why/ Why not? Explain.

    Encourage students to add any new information to their “What is Populism?” sheet.  Conclude the lesson by having students write an essay answering the last question on the “What is Populism?” sheet:  “Was the Populist Movement ultimately successful?  Explain.”

     

    Note: As an extension or in conjunction with students’ language arts course, students could also debate whether or not The Wizard of Oz was a parable on Populism.  The following websites address this argument:

     

     

    Lesson 6:  Early Response to Industrialism:  Labor Movement

     

    Content Expectations:  USHG F1.1; USHG 6.1.2  

     

    Key Concepts:  disparity of wealth, industrialization, labor movements, mechanization  

     

    Abstract:  In this lesson students learn about the efforts by American workers to promote “collective bargaining” as a means of preventing the worst abuses of industrialism and the policies of some owners and managers.  They examine the methods of organization, the political and social obstacles encountered, and the primary goals of 19th century organized labor.

     

    Prior to the lesson have students read about 19th Century workers’ struggles and the rise of organized labor in their textbooks or from the handout “The 19th Century Context for Workers’ Struggles and the Rise of Organized Labor,” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2). Students should be prepared to answer the questions: What factors led to the rise in unions? How did unions address the challenges of industrialization?

     

    Debrief the reading assignment with the class by asking them to respond to one of the questions above using a conversation line. In a conversation line, students form two lines facing each other. One side of the line talks for two minutes on the question to the person standing across from them. Then, the other side of the line discusses the question for two minutes.  Students then shuffle down so that they are facing another student and again take turns answering the question, two minutes per side.  Repeat the process a third time. 

     

    Next, divide the class into groups of six students each. Assign two people in each group to research one of the following:  Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, and United Mine Workers. Students should use their texts as well as computers with internet access to research their topics.  The following websites might be helpful:

    ·        Knights of Labor --  <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h933.html> and <http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=910>

    ·        American Federation of Labor -- <http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=835> and <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/bus/A0856583.html>.

    ·        United Mine Workers -- <http://ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=995&nm=United-Mine-Workers-of-America> and <http://www.umwa.org/index.php?q=content/brief-history-umwa>.

     

    To assist students in their research, distribute copies of “Labor Movements of the Late 19th and Early 20th Century” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2). Students should research the goals, methods, obstacles, successes and failures of their assigned organization. Have the partners report out to their small group on their assigned topic.  Group members should record the information on the handout.  Then, have students engage in a small group discussion of the following questions:

    ·        Which organization had the most reasonable or sensible approach to reform?  Why?

    ·        Which organization faced the most formidable obstacles?  Why?

    ·        How might the labor organizations have improved their chances of attaining their goals? Explain.     

     

    Debrief the small group discussions with the whole class by having each group reflect on how they answered the questions above.  

     

    Next, use the Homestead Strike to illustrate the conflict between labor and management.  Have students read the handout, “The Homestead Strike” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) that was used earlier in the unit.  Discuss the strike and its consequences for labor and management using the following questions:

    ·        Why did the conflict between workers and management begin?

    ·        Why do you think the workers decided to strike even though most of them were not members of the union?

    ·        How did management respond?

    ·        What did historian Paul Krause mean by stating that the conflict at Homestead was due to different views about property between labor and management?  Do you agree or disagree with his interpretation?  Explain.

    ·        Was Carnegie a hypocrite when it came to workers’ rights?  Justify your answer.

    ·        How might the idea of freedom be used to justify both labor and management’s position in the Homestead case?

     

    Conclude the lesson by having students write in their Freedom Tracking Notebooks in response to the following question: How might the activities of labor organizations at the end of the 19th Century and beginning of the 20th Century have promoted or inhibited freedom in the United States?

     

     

    Lesson 7:  Exploring the Changing Meaning of Freedom and Equality

     

    Content Expectations:  USHG F1.1; USHG 6.1.2 

     

    Key Concepts: disparity of wealth, labor movements, Social Darwinism 

     

    Abstract: In this lesson, students focus on the changing perspective that many people living in late 19th century America developed with respect to “freedom”.  The emergence of new methods of production, urbanization, and the continued concentration of wealth convinced some citizens that their basic rights and liberties were threatened by the new order.

     

    Begin the lesson by reminding students of the core values of American society which were articulated during the Revolutionary Era.  Have students work with a partner to list the events and documents that have addressed the ideas of freedom and equality.  Have students share their ideas with the whole class. Engage students in a class discussion about the changing meaning of liberty (freedom) and equality that evolved from the country’s founding through the course of the American Civil War and Reconstruction Era.  Next, ask students what they consider to be new perspectives concerning ideas of freedom and equality that emerged in response to the industrialization of the United States.  Encourage students to refer to their Freedom Tracking Notebook for a few minutes before attempting to respond to the question.  Once students have looked over their notebooks, discuss how and why the meaning of freedom and equality changed in America as a result of industrialization.  Guide students to the idea that freedom was broadened to include economic freedom. 

     

    Share with students Eric Foner’s interpretation of this change by using an overhead transparency of “Historian Eric Foner on Freedom – Industrial America” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2).  It is recommended that the teacher engage in a Think Aloud with the quotes. Discuss with students whether people in late 19th century America went too far or not far enough in the pursuit of freedom.  Be sure to encourage students to explain their reasoning. In discussing equality, ask students whether workers sought equality or equal opportunity.  Is there a difference between these two ideas?  How did workers’ desire to share in the fruits of their labor relate to issues of equality?  

     

    Conclude the lesson by having students create a poster on 14”x11” paper that depicts how the industrial age affected the meaning of freedom or equality in the United States.

     

     


    Lesson 8:  Constructing a Historical Narrative about the Growth of Industrial and Urban America  

     

    Content Expectations:  USHG 6.1.1; USHG 6.1.2; USHG 6.1.3; USHG 6.1.4; C6.1.2 

     

    Key Concepts:  historical narrative, immigration, industrialization, labor movements, mechanization, urbanization 

     

    Abstract: In this lesson students learn how to write an historical narrative and apply their understanding of American history.

     

    Make copies and distribute “Writing History” and “What is an Historical Narrative” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) and have students read the handout prior to the lesson.  Begin the lesson by insuring that students can distinguish between an evidentiary based argument and an historical narrative.  Refer students to the “Strategies for Constructing an Historical Narrative” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2) and the “Essay Guide” from Unit 1 (also located in the Supplemental Materials file for Unit 2).  Have students work in groups of four to construct a Venn diagram on chart paper comparing the characteristics of evidentiary arguments with historical narratives. Have the groups share their charts and discuss the differences and similarities. 

     

    Discuss with students the importance of using evidence for writing arguments and narratives. Make copies of the “Industrialization Sources” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2), as well as the document, cartoon, and photograph analyses sheets found at <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/index.html>.  Have students work with a partner to analyze each of the sources. Discuss with the entire class.

     

    Next, explain to students that they are to select one of the primary sources to construct an historical narrative about how industrialization transformed life in late 19th and early 20th century America.  Explain to students that they are to use the source to help tell the story of industrialization, but also to give truth to the story.  Have students review the handout “Strategies for Constructing an Historical Narrative” and follow the steps listed on the handout under “How to write a narrative.”  Also distribute the “Narrative Rubric” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2).  Review the rubric with students. Remind students to use their notes and materials used during this unit to add details to their narratives. Students could also conduct some independent research, though that is optional.

     

    Have students bring their draft essays to class and engage students in a peer review using the rubric as a guide. Allow students time to ask questions and permit them to revise their drafts before collecting.  Conclude the lesson by discussing how industrialization transformed life in late 19th and early 20th century America.  Students should contribute to the discussion by using the topics they researched in the discussion. 

     

     

Last Modified on February 14, 2018