• Unit Title

     Unit 1 Foundations-Beginnings through Reconstruction
     
    Supplemental Materials

    Selected Arguments of Anti-Federalists

     

    Melancton Smith, "Representation in Government"

     

    [W]hen we speak of representatives... they resemble those they represent. They should be a true picture of the people, possess a knowledge of their circumstances and their wants, sympathize in all their distresses, and be disposed to seek their true interests. The knowledge necessary for the representative of a free people not only comprehends extensive political and commercial information, such as is acquired by men of refined education, who have leisure to attain to high degrees of improvement, but it should also comprehend that kind of acquaintance with the common concerns and occupations of the people, which men of the middling class of life are, in general, more competent to than those of a superior class. To understand the true commercial interests of a country not only requires just ideas of the general commerce of the world, but also, and principally, a knowledge of the productions of your own country, and their value, what your soil is capable of producing, the nature of your manufactures, the capacity of the country to increase both. To exercise the power of laying taxes, duties, exercises, with discretion, requires something more than an acquaintance with the abstruse parts of the system of finance. It calls for a knowledge of the circumstances and ability of the people in general ­ a discernment how the burdens imposed will bear upon the different classes. ... The number of representatives should be so large, as that, while it embraces the men of the first class, it should admit those of the middling class of life.  I am convinced that this government is so constituted that the representatives will generally be composed of the first class in the community, which I shall distinguish by the name of the natural aristocracy  of the country... From these remarks, it appears that the government will fall into the hands of the few and the great.  This will be a government of oppression. ...A system of corruption is known to be the system of government in Europe... [and] it will be attempted among us. The most effectual as well as natural security against this is a strong democratic branch in the legislature, frequently chosen, including in it a number of the substantial, sensible, yeomanry of the country. Does the House of Representatives answer this description? I confess, to me they hardly wear the complexion of a democratic branch; they appear the mere shadow of representation.
     
     

    George Clinton, "In Opposition to Destruction of States' Rights"

     

    The... premises on which the new form of government is erected, declares a consolidation or union of all thirteen parts, or states, into one great whole, under the firm of the United States... But whoever seriously considers the immense extent of territory comprehended within the limits of the United States, together with the variety of its climates, productions, and commerce, the difference of extent, and number of inhabitants in all; the dissimilitude of interests, morals, and politics in almost every one, will receive it as an intuitive truth, that a consolidated republican form of government therein, can never form a perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to you and your posterity, for to these objects it must be directed: this unkindred legislature therefore, composed of interests opposite and dissimilar in nature, will in its exercise, emphatically be like a house divided against itself... From this picture, what can you promise yourself, on the score of consolidation of the United States into one government? Impracticability in the just exercise of it, your freedom insecure... you risk much, by indispensably placing trusts of the greatest magnitude, into the hands of individuals whose ambition for power, and aggrandizement, will oppress and grind you ­ where from the vast extent of your territory, and the complication of interests, the science of government will become intricate and perplexed, and too mysterious for you to understand and observe; and by which you are to be conducted into a monarchy, either limited or despotic...
     

     

    Patrick Henry, "Need for a Bill of Rights"

     

    This proposal of altering our federal government is of a most alarming nature!.... You ought to be watchful, jealous of your liberty; for, instead of securing your rights, you may lose them forever... I beg gentlemen to consider that a wrong step made now will plunge us into misery, and our republic will be lost, and tyranny must and will arise... The necessity of a Bill of Rights appears to me to be greater in this government than ever it was in any government before... All rights not expressly and unequivocally reserved to the people are impliedly and incidentally relinquished to rulers, as necessarily inseparable from the delegated powers... This is the question. If you intend to reserve your unalienable rights, you must have the most express stipulation; for, if implication be allowed, you are ousted of those rights. If the people do not think it necessary to reserve them, they will be supposed to be given up. [W]ithout a Bill of Rights, you will exhibit the most absurd thing to mankind that ever the world saw ­ a government [i.e. state governments] that has abandoned all its powers ­ the powers of taxation, the sword, and the purse. You have disposed of them to Congress, without a Bill of Rights ­ without check, limitation, or control... You have Bill of Rights to defend against a state government, which is bereaved of all its power, and yet you have none against Congress, thought in full and exclusive possession of all power!

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Source:  Selected Arguments of the Anti-Federalists. 3 Feb. 2009 <http://www.pinzler.com/ushistory/argantfedsupp.html>.


    United States Foreign Policy Prior to the Civil War

     

    Events
    Description
    Causes
    Consequences
     
     
     
     
    War of 1812
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Monroe Doctrine
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Mexican War
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

    United States Foreign Policy Prior to the Civil War

    Reference Guide

    Events
    Description
    Causes
    Consequences
     
     
    War of 1812
     
     
     
     
    Conflict between US and Great Britain in the United States and Canada over a range of issues.  Some historians refer to this as the Second War of Independence.
    Disputes over:
    ·  American trade with other nations
    ·  Impressment of American sailors
    ·  Britain’s encouragement and arming of American Indians to attack western settlers
    ·  American desire to gain land in Canada
    ·Improved relations between US and Great Britain after the war
    ·US gains greater confidence as a nation
    ·Rise of Andrew Jackson as a hero of the people
    ·Washington D.C. was burned
     
     
    Monroe Doctrine
     
     
     
     
    United States foreign policy statement that was issued in 1823.  It basically stated that the US would defend any of its hemispheric neighbors to the south if they were threatened by foreign invasion.
    ·  After the Napoleonic Wars it appeared that Spain with the help of the Concert of Europe (an alliance among European powers set up at the Congress of Vienna in 1815) might try to regain its former colonies in the New World. 
    ·  The US was fearful of renewed and coordinated European encroachment in the western hemisphere.
    ·Initially there were no significant reactions. 
    ·In the late 19th and first several decades of the 20th century, however, the US used the doctrine to assert its right to challenge hemispheric encroachment from European powers and to assert its own dominance in the hemisphere.
     
    Mexican War
     
     
     
     
     
    Armed conflict between the US and Mexico.  The United States won after a relatively short [1846-1848] but militarily costly struggle.
     
     
     
     
    ·  When Americans living in Texas revolted against Mexico they eventually became an American state and claimed some territory that Mexico considered its own. 
    · This border dispute along with American support of the Texan revolt sparked the conflict.
    ·        The United States gained all of the present southwest with the exception of the Gadsden Purchase.  Sectional tensions resulted between north and south over how to organize the new territories and helped lead to Civil War.

    John L. O'Sullivan on Manifest Destiny, 1839

     

    Excerpted from "The Great Nation of Futurity," The United States Democratic Review, Volume 6, Issue 23, pp. 426-430.


    The American people having derived their origin from many other nations, and the Declaration of National Independence being entirely based on the great principle of human equality, these facts demonstrate at once our disconnected position as regards any other nation; that we have, in reality, but little connection with the past history of any of them, and still less with all antiquity, its glories, or its crimes. On the contrary, our national birth was the beginning of a new history, the formation and progress of an untried political system, which separates us from the past and connects us with the future only; and so far as regards the entire development of the natural rights of man, in moral, political, and national life, we may confidently assume that our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity.

    It is so destined, because the principle upon which a nation is organized fixes its destiny, and that of equality is perfect, is universal. It presides in all the operations of the physical world, and it is also the conscious law of the soul -- the self-evident dictates of morality, which accurately defines the duty of man to man, and consequently man's rights as man. Besides, the truthful annals of any nation furnish abundant evidence, that its happiness, its greatness, its duration, were always proportionate to the democratic equality in its system of government. . . .

    What friend of human liberty, civilization, and refinement, can cast his view over the past history of the monarchies and aristocracies of antiquity, and not deplore that they ever existed? What philanthropist can contemplate the oppressions, the cruelties, and injustice inflicted by them on the masses of mankind, and not turn with moral horror from the retrospect?

    America is destined for better deeds. It is our unparalleled glory that we have no reminiscences of battle fields, but in defence of humanity, of the oppressed of all nations, of the rights of conscience, the rights of personal enfranchisement. Our annals describe no scenes of horrid carnage, where men were led on by hundreds of thousands to slay one another, dupes and victims to emperors, kings, nobles, demons in the human form called heroes. We have had patriots to defend our homes, our liberties, but no aspirants to crowns or thrones; nor have the American people ever suffered themselves to be led on by wicked ambition to depopulate the land, to spread desolation far and wide, that a human being might be placed on a seat of supremacy.

    We have no interest in the scenes of antiquity, only as lessons of avoidance of nearly all their examples. The expansive future is our arena, and for our history. We are entering on its untrodden space, with the truths of God in our minds, beneficent objects in our hearts, and with a clear conscience unsullied by the past. We are the nation of human progress, and who will, what can, set limits to our onward march? Providence is with us, and no earthly power can. We point to the everlasting truth on the first page of our national declaration, and we proclaim to the millions of other lands, that "the gates of hell" -- the powers of aristocracy and monarchy -- "shall not prevail against it."

    The far-reaching, the boundless future will be the era of American greatness. In its magnificent domain of space and time, the nation of many nations is destined to manifest to mankind the excellence of divine principles; to establish on earth the noblest temple ever dedicated to the worship of the Most High -- the Sacred and the True. Its floor shall be a hemisphere -- its roof the firmament of the star-studded heavens, and its congregation an Union of many Republics, comprising hundreds of happy millions, calling, owning no man master, but governed by God's natural and moral law of equality, the law of brotherhood -- of "peace and good will amongst men.". . .

    Yes, we are the nation of progress, of individual freedom, of universal enfranchisement. Equality of rights is the cynosure of our union of States, the grand exemplar of the correlative equality of individuals; and while truth sheds its effulgence, we cannot retrograde, without dissolving the one and subverting the other. We must onward to the fulfilment of our mission -- to the entire development of the principle of our organization -- freedom of conscience, freedom of person, freedom of trade and business pursuits, universality of freedom and equality. This is our high destiny, and in nature's eternal, inevitable decree of cause and effect we must accomplish it. All this will be our future history, to establish on earth the moral dignity and salvation of man -- the immutable truth and beneficence of God. For this blessed mission to the nations of the world, which are shut out from the life-giving light of truth, has America been chosen; and her high example shall smite unto death the tyranny of kings, hierarchs, and oligarchs, and carry the glad tidings of peace and good will where myriads now endure an existence scarcely more enviable than that of beasts of the field. Who, then, can doubt that our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity?

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Source:  John L. O’Sullivan on Manifest Destiny 1839. Excerpt of The Great Nation of Futurity.   Mount Holyoke.  9 Feb. 2009 <http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/osulliva.htm>.

    “American Progress” by John Gast, 1872
    woman

    Source: Gast, John. American Progress. 1872. 3 Feb. 2009 <http://www.csub.edu/~gsantos/img0061.html>.

    Photo Analysis Worksheet

    Step 1. Observation

    A.

      

    Study the photograph for 2 minutes. Form an overall impression of the photograph and then examine individual items. Next, divide the photo into quadrants and study each section to see what new details become visible.

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    B.

     

    Use the chart below to list people, objects, and activities in the photograph.

    People

    Objects

    Activities

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Step 2. Inference

     

     

    Based on what you have observed above, list three things you might infer from this photograph.

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    Step 3. Questions

    A.

     

    What questions does this photograph raise in your mind?

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    B.

     

    Where could you find answers to them?

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    C.

     

    What message do you think the artist is trying to convey?

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    What evidence supports your message

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Growing Sectionalism Research Guide

     

    My Topic:  ____________________________________________

     

     

    Description:

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Historical Significance:

     

     


    Growing Sectionalism

    Issue or Event

    Description and Significance

     

     

    Missouri Compromise

     

     

     

     

     

     

    The Liberator

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Nullification Crisis

     

     

     

     

     

    Fredrick Douglass

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Wilmot Proviso

     

     

     

     

     

    Compromise of 1850

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Uncle Tom’s Cabin

     

     

     

     

     

    Kansas-Nebraska Act

     

     

     

     

     

    Growing Sectionalism Reference Guide

    Issue or Event

    Description and Significance

     

    Missouri Compromise

     

     

    The request by Missouri to join the Union as a slave state in 1819 threatened to upset the balance between slave and free states.  The Missouri Compromise (1820) admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, and established that slavery would be forbidden north of 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude (except for Missouri itself).  Set the precedent that Congress could make laws regarding slavery.  Served purpose of holding Union together until repealed by Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) and principle of popular sovereignty and then declared unconstitutional by Dred Scott decision (1857).

     

    The Liberator

     

     

     

    Abolitionist newspaper first published in 1831 by William Lloyd Garrison.   It was a very radical and confrontational work which called for an immediate end to slavery with no compensation for owners.  It also considered slavery a sin and owners engaged in evil.  The Liberator further enflamed sectional tensions and helped in general to promote the cause of abolition.

     

    Nullification Crisis

     

     

     

    This was a state challenge to the authority of the federal government. In response to a protective tariff that favored the north over the south, South Carolina claimed the right of states to nullify or cancel federal legislation, if the states felt the federal government exceeded its authority in a particular instance.  This demonstrated important differences between north and south in both economic development and attitudes toward federal power.  The political issue of states’ rights, which informed the nullification crisis, would help lead to the Civil War. In the short term, South Carolina rescinded its action and the issue of states’ rights was postponed, not resolved.

     

    Fredrick Douglass

     

     

     

    African-American abolitionist who was born a slave.  Escaped and eventually gained his freedom.  Established the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.  An accomplished writer and orator, he was able to promote effectively the cause of abolition not only in the United States but in Europe as well.

     

    Wilmot Proviso

     

     

     

    An attempt in 1846 by a Pennsylvania Congressman, David Wilmot to prevent the spread of slavery into any and all territory gained as a result of the Mexican War.  This immediately unleashed intense debated between north and south over the issue of “the peculiar institution” and threatened to embroil the nation in Civil War.

     

    Growing Sectionalism Reference Guide

    (Continued)

    Issue or Event

    Description and Significance

     

    Compromise of 1850

     

     

    Another attempt to resolve the conflicts arising from the potential expansion of slavery westward, this time into land gained by the U.S. as a result of the Mexican-American War. There were four components to the Compromise of 1850. The first two were in favor of the north:  California was admitted to the union as a free state and slave trade in the District of Columbia was abolished.  The other two provisions -- the slavery issue would be decided by popular sovereignty (local choice) in New Mexico and Utah territories and the Fugitive Slave Act (which made it easier for owners to recover slaves who had run away) -- favored the south. 

     

    Uncle Tom’s Cabin

     

     

     

    When Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin, it set off a firestorm.  The novel was the first widespread indictment of slavery. It was widely read.  It served to spark abolitionist feelings among many northerners.  In turn, the novel angered many southerners who called it an unfair portrayal of slavery and life in the south in general.

     

     

    Kansas-Nebraska Act

     

    Yet another attempt to address the important question of slavery in territories as they were organized for statehood.  This law (1854) allowed for popular sovereignty (local choice) to determine the issue of slavery for the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.  This law angered many northerners because it overrode the 36-degree parallel established in the Missouri Compromise, allowing slavery north of that border.  Led to political conflict and violence in Kansas over whether the territory would be slave or free (see “Bleeding Kansas” below).  The Act changed the national political landscape, weakening several major political parties, and exacerbated north-south tensions.

     

     

     

Last Modified on February 14, 2018