• Lesson 5:  The Great Lakes

     

    Big Ideas of the Lesson

     

     

    ·         To study a place geographers ask the question: What is the place like?

    ·         To answer that question geographers study the human characteristics of the place.

    ·         Human characteristics are often connected to natural (physical) characteristics. For example, people often build bridges across rivers and cities next to rivers.

    ·         Human characteristics include bridges, highways, cities and buildings.

    ·         Special purpose maps can be used to learn about these human characteristics.

     

     

     

    Lesson Focus Questions:

    What natural resources are found in Michigan?

    Can you label them on a map?

    How does the use of natural resources affect the environment?

     

    Content Expectations:

    3-G5.0.1      Locate natural resources in Michigan and explain the consequences of their use.

     

    Key Concepts: natural resources, human/environment interaction

     

    Lesson Vocabulary: natural resources, consequences

     

    Students will know: 

    • natural resources found within Michigan 
    • consequences of using natural resources 

    Students will be able to:

    • locate natural resources on a map of Michigan
    • explain the consequences of the use of natural resources

    Student friendly language:

    • I can label natural resources found in Michigan on a map.
    • I can explain what happens to the environment when natural resources are used.

    Abstract:  This lesson furthers students’ understanding of natural resources as they focus on the Great Lakes. The lesson integrates fine arts, literature, informational text and poetry as students learn about the Great Lakes. As a culmination, students create a visual project describing why the Great Lakes are great.

                                                             

    Handouts:

     

    Lesson Resources:

    United Streaming Resources:

    G5.0.1
    • Learning about Natural Resources (22:00)
    • Water Smart: Water As Natural Resource (15:03)
    • Uses of Rocks and Minerals (18:00)

    Instructional Resources

    Equipment/Manipulative

    Chart paper and markers

    Desktop maps of Michigan for students or a Michigan map from a textbook or a paper copy of a Michigan map

    Overhead projector or document camera/projector

    Student journal or notebook

    Wall map of Michigan or overhead of a Michigan map

     

    Student Resource

    Lewis, Anne Margaret. Lighthouse Fireflies. Traverse City, Michigan: Mackinac Island Press, 2005.

     

    McConnell, David. Meet Michigan. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 2009. 27-31

     

    Munsch, Robert. Lighthouse, A Story of Remembrance. New York: Cartwheel Books, 2003.

     

    Seeing the Light: Michigan Lighthouses. 10 July 2009 http://www.terrypepper.com/lights/state_michigan.htm

     

    Whelan, Gloria. Mackinac Bridge: The Story of the Five Mile Poem. Chelsea, Michigan: Sleeping Bear Press, 2006.

     

    Teacher Resource

    Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5). Teacher-made material. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum, 2009.

     

    Major Highways Map. Michigan Economic Development Website. 10 July 2009 <http://ref.michiganadvantage.org/cm/attach/ab7251e3-c65b-4867-8584-90278c437381/majorhighways.pdf>.

     

    Map of Michigan Lighthouses. 10 July 2009 <http://michiganlighthouse.org/lh_map.htm>.

     

    Teacher’s Lighthouse Resource for Grades K-4. 10 July 2009 <http://www.uscg.mil/history/articles/LighthouseCurriculum.pdf>.

     

    Lesson Sequence

    1.    Make and display an overhead of the “Reviewing What We’ve Learned Chart” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5) or make a similar chart on large chart paper. Guide students in reviewing what they learned about natural (physical) characteristics in Lessons 3 and 4 by adding information to the chart. Encourage them to make use of the Word Cards, Big Idea Cards and graphic organizers from the two lessons.

     

    2.    Remind students that geographers are also interested in the human characteristics of a place. Review this term and ask students for examples of human characteristics. Note that common examples include cities, buildings, bridges and roads. Using the following examples discuss how natural (physical) characteristics and human characteristics are often connected. In other words, people often interact with natural (physical) characteristics by creating human characteristics.

    ·         People build docks on islands because they use boats to get to islands.

    ·         People build bridges over rivers so they can cross the river.

    ·         People build sawmills near forests so they can make use of the trees.

    Ask students to come up with their own examples of connections between natural (physical) and human characteristics.

     

    3.    Using a map of Michigan point out the two peninsulas and pose this question: What human characteristic do you think people had to build because Michigan had two separate peninsulas? Guide students to the idea that the Mackinac Bridge had to be constructed. Pose the following question and ask students to write an answer in their Michigan studies journals but don’t discuss responses (until step #7): How do you think people got from the Lower Peninsula to the Upper Peninsula before the bridge was built?

     

    4.    Introduce the book Mackinac Bridge: The Story of the Five Mile Poem to students by writing the term ‘point of view’’ on an overhead or board and explaining that authors often include characters with different points of view in a story. Show the cover of the book and explain that this book describes the building of the Mackinac Bridge from the viewpoint of three different characters, a father and his two sons.

     

    5.    Read the book aloud to students, stopping at appropriate times to discuss the characters and their points of view regarding the construction of the bridge as well as the impact of the bridge itself.

     

    6.    Give each student a copy of the “Different Points of View” chart located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5) and go over the directions. Give students time to complete the chart. Note that a chart showing sample answers has also been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5) for reference. Place students in pairs and have them share what they wrote with their partner. Then, bring the whole class together again to discuss the book and different points of view of the characters.

     

    7.    Have students return to their Michigan studies journals and review how they answered the question posed in Step 3. Ask them to answer the question again in their journals. Give them time to write and then discuss their responses to the question before and after they heard the book.

     

    8.    Explain that there are many other important bridges in Michigan including three that connect Michigan with the country of Canada. Using a Michigan map point out the Ambassador Bridge at Detroit, the Bluewater Bridge at Port Huron and the International Bridge at Sault Ste. Marie.

     

    9.    Pose the following question: Is there any other way to cross water besides using a ferry or a bridge? Discuss student responses and guide them to the idea that people sometimes build tunnels under bodies of water. Explain that in Detroit there is a tunnel connecting the city of Detroit and the city of Windsor in Canada.

     

    10. Explain that it would be hard to use either a bridge or a tunnel without building another kind of human characteristic. Ask students what they think this might be. Display an overhead of the “Major Highways of Michigan” map located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5), and explain that bridges and tunnels require highways.  Ask students to carefully look at the map and write one thing they can conclude about the highways of Michigan based on the map.  Give students time to write and then have them share their answers. Note that possible ideas include:

    ·         Most highways go either north/south or east/west.

    ·         A lot of highways go to the Detroit area.

    ·         There are fewer highways in the Upper Peninsula.

    ·         In the Lower Peninsula highways go almost all the way round the coastlines.

     

    11.  Give each student a copy of the highway map and a copy of the “Reading a Highway Map” skill sheet located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5). Explain that students should use the map to complete the sheet. A completed answer sheet has also been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 5). Note that the skill sheet could also be given as homework.

     

    12. Ask students to look at the Major Highways map again and find another kind of human characteristic that is shown on this special purpose map. Discuss student ideas and guide them to identifying cities as the other human characteristic shown on this map. Using your own overhead of the map, guide students in identifying the following Michigan cities. Have them place a red dot on each city as they locate it:

    ·         St. Ignace and Mackinaw City, the two cities on either side of the Mackinac Bridge

    ·         Detroit, the largest city in Michigan

    ·         Marquette, the largest city in the Upper Peninsula

    ·         Lansing, the state capital

    ·         Grand Rapids, another large city

    ·         Sault Ste. Marie, an important city in the Upper Peninsula

    ·         Ludington, a city where you can take a ferry across Lake Michigan to the state of
    Wisconsin

     

      
     
    15. Note that some excellent teaching materials relating to lighthouses can be found in the Teacher’s Lighthouse Resource created by the U.S. Coast Guard. This can be downloaded at the following website: http://www.uscg.mil/history/articles/LighthouseCurriculum.pdf

     

    16. As a literature connection read students one, or both, of the following books: Lighthouse, A Story of Remembrance, Lighthouse Fireflies. Note that reading both books allows for an interesting text-to-text comparison since both books are on the same theme of lighthouses but are very different kinds of books. 

     

    17. Note that this lesson can be supplemented by pages 27 – 31 in Meet Michigan or similar pages in another textbook on Michigan.
     
    18. As a culminating project for Lessons 3, 4, and 5 have students create a poster, brochure, or other visual project describing in words and in illustrations significant natural (physical) and human characteristics of Michigan.
     
    Assessment
    As an assessment, students could identify and describe three significant human charateristics of
    Michigan.  Note that the culminating project described in Step 18 could also be used as an
    assessment.                                                                      

     

    Lesson 6:  Michigan and the Theme of Human/Environment Interaction

     

    Big Ideas of the Lesson

     

     

    ·         To study a place geographers ask the question: How have people interacted with the environment of the place?

    ·         To answer that question geographers study how people have used the natural resources of the place.

    ·         Natural resources are things in nature that people find useful.

    ·         Important natural resources of Michigan include trees, fertile soil, the Great Lakes, other bodies of water and minerals.

    ·         It is important for people to use natural resources wisely.

     

     
    Lesson Focus Questions:
    G5.0.1:
    • What natural resources are found in Michigan?
    • Can you label them on a map?
    • How does the use of natural resources affect the environment? 
    G5.0.2:
    • How do people adapt to their environment?
    • How do people use natural resources?
    • How do people change natural resources to accommodate themselves?

     

    Content Expectations:

    3-G5.0.1      Locate natural resources in Michigan and explain the consequences of their use.

    3-G5.0.2      Describe how people adapt to, use, and modify the natural resources of Michigan.

     

    Key Concepts: human/environment interaction

     

    Lesson Vocabulary: 

    G5.0.1

    • natural resources
    • consequences

    G5.0.2

    • natural resources
    • adapt
    • modify

    Students will know: 

    G5.0.1

    • natural resources found within Michigan
    • consequences of using natural resources

    G5.0.2:  how people adapt to, use, and modify natural reources

     

    Students will be able to:

    G5.0.1:

    • locate natural resources on a map of Michigan
    • explain the consequences of the use of naural resources

    G5.0.2:  describe how people adapt to, use, and modify natural resources

     

    Student friendly language:

    G5.0.1:

    • I can label natural resources found in Michigan on a map.
    • I can explain what happens to the environment when natural resources are used.

    G5.0.2:  I can draw a picture to show how a natural resource has been used to make a product (i.e. water= hydroelectricity, iron ore=steel, timber=house, paper, etc.).

     

    Abstract:  This lesson connects back to lessons 4 and 5 and ways in which people use the environment. Using concrete examples, students are introduced to adaptation and modification. By exploring homes in Michigan (e.g., furnace, peaked roof, screens, etc.), students examine how people adapt to their environment. Students examine modifications of the environment by revisiting the building materials used for homes in Michigan. They further examine human/environmental interaction by exploring water pollution through literature (A River Ran Wild), and land issues (such as the filling in of wetlands for housing). Students consider public issues relating to the environment at the end of the lesson.  

     

    Handouts:

     

    Lesson Resources: 

    • Cherry, Lynne. A River Ran Wild. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, Jovanonich, 1992.
    • *Great Lakes and Seaway Shipping. 23 Jan. 2008 <http://www.boatnerd.com/

    United Streaming Resources:

    G5.0.1

    • Learning about Natural Resources (22:00)
    • Water Smart: Water As Natural Resource (15:03)
    • Uses of Rocks and Minerals (18:00)

    G5.0.2

    • American Geography Close Ups: Midwest Volume (20:00)

     

    Instructional Resources

    Equipment/Manipulative

    Chart paper and markers

    Desktop maps of Michigan for students or a Michigan map from a textbook or a paper copy of a Michigan map

    Overhead projector or document camera/projector

    Student journal or notebook

    Wall map of Michigan or overhead of a Michigan map

     

    Student Resource

    McConnell, David. Meet Michigan. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 2009. 33.

     

    Silverstein, Shel. The Giving Tree. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.

     

    Teacher Resource

    Cherry Orchard. 10 July 2009 <http://blog.visittraversecity.com/>.

     

    Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 6). Teacher-made material. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum, 2009.

     

    Fishing on the Great Lakes. 10 July 2009 .<http://www.michigansportfishing.com/denis%20brigham%206-7-03.jpg>.

     

    Great Lakes Freighter. 10 July 2009 <http://www.bearingertownship.org/images/images/Great%20Lakes%20freighter%20on%20Lake%20Huron_jpg.jpg>.

     

    Limestone Quarry at Rogers City. 10 July 2009 http://www.boatnerd.com/news/newpictures03b/RogersCity_FRWhite.jpg

     

    Maps of Oil and Gas Wells. 10 July 2009 <http://www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3311_4111_4231-14421--,00.html>.

     

    Michigan Beach. 10 July 2009 <http://www.michigan.org/Things-to-Do/Outdoors/Beaches/Default.aspx>.

     

    Michigan Farm. 10 July 2009 <http://www.panoramio.com/photo/18396511>.

     

    Michigan’s Natural Resources and Environment: A Citizens Guide. 10 July 2009 <http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/Publications/NaturalResources.pdf>.

     

    Michigan Oil Well. 10 July 2009 <http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3358/3285607470_131a271c69.jpg>.

     

    Salt Mine in Detroit. 10 July 2009 <http://www.detroitsalt.com/images/home-image.jpg>.

     

    Tilden Iron Mine. 10 July 2009 <http://hunts-upguide.com/ishpeming_tilden_mine_tour.html>.

     

    Upper Michigan Logging. 10 July 2009 <http://www.uppermichiganlogging.com/>.

     
    Lesson Sequence

    1.    Referring back to previous lessons remind students that geographers study a place by asking questions and trying to find the answers to the questions. Remind them that one of the questions is: What is the place like? Explain that another question is: How have people interacted with the environment of the place? One way to answer this question is to explore how people have used the natural (physical) characteristics of the place.

     

    2.    Write the term “natural resource” on an overhead transparency or board. Provide students with an example of a natural resource and then have students work with a partner to create their own definition the term. As a class, discuss student responses and guide them to the idea that natural resources are materials found in nature that people make useful. Ask students to name examples of natural resources. Make a list of their ideas. In second grade, students should have learned at least three examples: water, trees and soil. Explain that natural resources are very important to people. Give students Word Card #29

     

    3.    Read students the book “The Giving Tree” by Shel Silverstein. Make sure to share the illustrations with students. Discuss the book using the following questions:

      • What natural resource is the book about?
      • Why is the book called “The Giving Tree?”
      • What different uses did the boy find for the tree?
      • What do you think the author is trying to tell us about how humans use natural resources?
      • What do you think the lesson (moral) of the book is?

     

    4.    Divide students in pairs and give each pair a set of the “Natural Resource Cards” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 6). Explain that these cards show some of the important natural resources of Michigan and how people have used these resources. Write the terms “Land”, “Water”, and “Forests” on an overhead or chalkboard. Ask students to categorize the 10 Natural Resource cards into three groups according to the three labels listed on the board. Give students time to complete the activity. Have pairs compare their grouping with that of another pair. Then, discuss the groupings. Note that the logical grouping is as follows:

      • Water: Cards 1, 6, 7
      • Forests: Cards 3
      • Land: Cards 2,4,5,8,9,10

    Explain that in this lesson students will learn more about the natural resources shown on the cards.

     

    5.    Ask students to put the cards relating to forests and land aside and examine the three cards relating to water. Pose the following question:  What three uses of the natural resource of water do these cards show. Make a list of students’ responses on an overhead or chalkboard. Guide students in understanding that the cards show that people in Michigan use water for recreation, food and shipping. Briefly discuss other uses of water that students may be able to identify.

     

    6.    Give each student a copy of the “Natural Resources Chart” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 6) and make an overhead of the chart. Explain that students will be adding information to the chart throughout the lesson. Using the “Completed Natural Resources Chart” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 6) for reference guide students in writing “Water” and “Generating Power” in the appropriate places on the chart.

     

    7.    Ask students to examine Natural Resource Card #3 again and pose this question: What are some of the ways people use the natural resource of forests? Make a list of their responses. Then, guide them in writing “Forests” and “Furniture in the appropriate places on the chart. Share the following information regarding the importance of trees to Michigan:

      • Michigan has more than 75 different types of trees.
      • There are over 19.3 million acres of forests in Michigan. These cover more than half of the state. Forests are mainly  found in the Upper Peninsula and the northern Lower Peninsula.
      • Michigan’s state forest system has 3.8 million acres. This is the largest State Forest system in the United States.
      • Trees help clean the air

    ·         Trees are used to produce lumber, paper, furniture, etc

     

    8.    Ask students to examine the 6 Natural Resource Cards relating to land (Cards 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, and 10). Explain that these cards show two different ways in which people use land. Ask students to try and determine these two ways by dividing the six cards into two groups. Give students time to complete the grouping and discuss how they have grouped the cards. Guide them in understanding that Cards 8 and 9 show how people use soil for farming and growing fruit trees. Cards 2, 4, 5 and 10 show how people take things from the ground itself.

     

    9.    Use Word Card #30 to explain the term ‘fertile soil’ and add this term to the appropriate place on the Natural Resources Chart. Next add the phrase ‘Orchards” to the chart. Explain that in a later unit on the history of Michigan students will learn the important role fertile soil and farming played in the development of Michigan.

     

    10. Using Word Card #31, explain the term ‘mineral’. Note that this term has different meanings depending on the context. However, it generally includes the following:

      • Metals and metal-bearing ores – such as gold, copper and iron
      • Non-metallic minerals and mineable rock products – such as limestone, gypsum, building stones, salt and sometimes sand and gravel
      • Fossil fuels – oil, natural gas and coal

    For third graders the first two bullets can be combined together and fossil fuels kept as a separate category.

     

    11. Guide students in adding the terms “Minerals” and “Manufacturing” to the appropriate places on the Natural Resources Chart. Ask students to examine Natural Resource Card #5. Explain that this card shows the Tilden Iron Mine in the Upper Peninsula. Give students Word Card #32 and have them circle the phrase ‘iron ore’ on the Natural Resources Chart. Share the following information regarding the natural resource of iron:

      • There are three different iron ranges in Michigan. All of them are located in the Upper Peninsula.
      • Michigan ranks second among iron-producing states. Only Minnesota mines more iron ore.
      • Almost all of the iron ore mined in Michigan is known as a low grade of ore called taconite.
      • Heavy mining of iron ore in Michigan during the early 1900s depleted most of the higher grades of ore.
      • Taconite is carried by Great Lakes freighters to many different ports

     

    12. Give students Word Card #33 and have them circle the word ‘copper’ on the Natural Resources Chart. Share the following information regarding copper:

      • Michigan is one of the few sources of “native” or pure copper in the world.
      • For many years Michigan was a world leader in copper mining.
      • There are large deposits of copper in the western part of the Upper Peninsula but they are very expensive to mine because the copper is so deep. Therefore, copper is not mined in Michigan any longer.

     

    13. Explain to students that sometimes a natural resource that looks useless can actually become an important natural resource. This is true of limestone, one of the most abundant and valuable of the stones mined in Michigan.  Give students Word Card # 34. Point out Rogers City on a Michigan map and tell students that this city has one of the world’s largest limestone quarries. Ask them to examine Natural Resource Card # 2 which shows this quarry. Explain that limestone is used in the steelmaking process and in the chemical and construction industries. Have students circle the word ‘limestone’ on their Natural Resources Chart.

     

    14. Ask students to examine Natural Resources Card # 4. Explain that this card shows the salt mine located under the city of Detroit.  Have students circle the word ‘salt’ on the Natural Resources Chart. Explain that Michigan has one of the world’s largest salt deposits underneath its surface. The thickest salt bed is under most of the Lower Peninsula. Explain that between 1880 and 1926, Michigan was first or second in salt production in the United States. The state is still a leading salt producer. 

     

    15. Have students circle the word ‘sand’ on their Natural Resources Chart. Explain that sand, like salt, is a natural resource that might not look useful at first. Explain that sand is mined in many places in Michigan and used in industries like construction. Explain that sand is even mined in some sand dune areas. Dune sand is known for its high quality. It is used to make molds for the automobile industry. Sand dune mining has become a public issue. Many people feel that sand dunes are a very important natural (physical) characteristic of Michigan and should not be mined. Explain that in an upcoming unit students will explore the issue of sand dune mining in greater depth.

     

    16. Make and display an overhead of the two maps showing Michigan gas and oil wells. Use the following questions to discuss maps:

    ·         Where are the most gas wells located?

    ·         Where are the most oil wells located?

    ·         Why isn’t the Upper Peninsula shown on the maps?

     

    17. Add the following to the Natural Resources Chart: “Gas and Oil”, “Fuel for Transportation” “Natural Gas and Oil”.  Explain to students that even though Michigan produces oil and gas, it is not enough to meet all the needs of the people in Michigan. Therefore, Michigan still needs to import gas and oil (buy it from somewhere else).

     

    18. If you wish to cover the third grade science content expectation relating to renewable and nonrenewable resources in this lesson give students Word Cards #35 and 36 and share the following information with students at this time:

    ·         Renewable natural resources are resources that can be replaced.

    ·          Water and trees are examples of renewable resources.

    ·         Nonrenewable natural resources are resources that cannot be replaced.

    ·         Minerals, natural gas and oil are nonrenewable resources

     

    19. Explain that there are both positive and negative consequences of using natural resources. Make and display an overhead of the “Consequences of Using Natural Resources Chart” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 6) or create a similar chart on large chart paper. Guide students in identifying consequences and list their ideas on the chart. Note that a chart with sample answers has been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 6) for your use as a reference.

     

    20. As a culminating activity, have students use the information learned in this lesson to design and create a poster about Michigan’s natural resources.

     

     

    Assessment

    The culminating poster can be used as an assessment. Students could also write a short paragraph summarizing what they have learned about Michigan’s natural resources.   

     

     

Last Modified on February 14, 2018