• Lesson 7:  Michigan and the Theme of Movement

     

    Big Ideas of the Lesson

     

     

    ·         To study a place geographers ask the question: How have people interacted with the environment of the place?

    ·         To answer that question geographers study how people modify the environment of the place.

    ·         People modified the environment of Michigan by polluting the Great Lakes and rivers.

    ·         They also modified the environment of Michigan by filling in wetlands, cutting down forests and building cities.

    ·         Geographers also study how people have adapted to the environment of a place.

    ·         In Michigan, houses can be studied in order to understand how people adapt to Michigan’s four seasons.

     

    Lesson Focus Questions:

    Why do people travel to Michigan?

    How do waterways, roads, and railroads help people and goods to move throughout Michigan?

    How is information passed from place to place or person to person?

    What do people do when jobs are not available?

    What makes goods, people, jobs, or information move from place to place?

     

    Content Expectations:

    3-G4.0.3      Describe some of the current movements of goods, people, jobs or information to,

                         from, or within Michigan and explain reasons for the movements.

     

    Key Concepts: movement

     

    Lesson Vocabulary: goods and services

     

    Students will know:  current movement of goods, people, jobs, or information (to, from, or within Michigan) 

    Students will be able to:  describe the current movement of goods, people, jobs, or information (to, from, or within Michigan) 

    Student friendly language:  I can write about how iron ore is transported from the Upper Peninsula to factories in other areas and explain why (goods can be substituted with people, jobs, or information).

     

    Abstract:  This lesson focuses on current ways people, goods, jobs and ideas move to, from, and within Michigan. The lesson builds upon students’ understanding of the Great Lakes with a short activity on shipping and literature (Mail By The Pail).  Using maps students explore how roads and railroads enable people and goods to move and investigate reasons for movement.  Students engage in a brief discussion about positive consequences of movement (such as enabling specialization in the production of goods), and negative consequences (such as invasive species like the zebra muscles and emerald ash bore). Note:  The movement of people and push/pull factors will be addressed in the Michigan History unit.

     

    Handouts:

     

    Lesson Resources:

    •  Michigan Maps. Michigan Economic Development Corporation. 23 Jan. 2008 <http://medc.michigan.org/miinfo/mimaps/>.
    • Bergel, Colin and Koenig, Mark. Mail by the Pail. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2001.
    United Streaming Resources:
     

    Instructional Resources

    Equipment/Manipulative

    Chart paper and markers

    Michigan Map (desktop, textbook, or paper copies)

    Overhead projector or document camera/projector

    Student journal or notebook

    Wall map of Michigan or overhead of a Michigan map

     

    Student Resource

    Cherry, Lynne. A River Ran Wild. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, Jovanonich, 1992.

     

    Teacher Resource

    California Home. July 10 2009 <http://imgs.sfgate.com/c/pictures/2008/08/07/ba-comingup10_de_0498882016.jpg>.

     

    Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 7). Teacher-made material. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum, 2009.

     

    Michigan Home. 10 July 2009 <http://www.salinemichiganrealestate.com/m/blogs/vanceshutes/Beaver%20Crossing%20925.JPG>.

     Lesson Sequence

    1.    Remind students that geographers study a place by asking questions and trying to find the answers those questions. Remind them that one of the questions is: How have people interacted with the environment of the place? Using Word Card #37, explain that Human/Environment Interaction is one of the most important things geographers study.

     

    2.    Review the natural resources studied in the previous lesson by asking students to list three important natural resources of Michigan in their Michigan studies journal. Give students time to write and then discuss their answers. Pose the following question: What do you think happens when people use natural resources? Discuss their responses and guide students in understanding that when people use natural resources they change the environment. For example, when people cut down trees for lumber the forest habitat is changed.

     

    3.    Using Word Card #38 discuss the term ‘modifying the environment” by explaining that sometimes people change the environment to fit them. For example, people cut down trees long ago in order to clear land for farming. Explain that you will now be reading students a book that will help them better understand modification of the environment. Explain that although the book takes place in another state, what happened in the book was very similar to what happened in Michigan.

     

    4.    Read students the book “A River Ran Wild” by Lynn Cherry. Make sure to share the illustrations with students. Stop at appropriate times and discuss the story. When you have finished, give each student a copy of the “Story Sequence Cards” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 7) and have students work independently to cut out the cards and place them in the correct sequence. Note that a page showing the correct sequence has been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 7) for your use as a reference.

     

    5.    Make and display an overhead of the “Using and Modifying the Environment Charts” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 7) or create similar charts on large chart paper. Guide students in listing examples of using the environment and changing the environment described in Lynn Cherry’s book. Note that charts showing sample answers have been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 7) to use as a reference.

     

    6.    Explain that what happened to the Nashua River in the book was very similar to what happened to many Michigan rivers in the past. As people used rivers, they polluted them. Explain that people also polluted the Great Lakes.

     

    7.    Make and display an overhead of the “Lake Erie Timeline” and go over the timeline with students. Explain that although Lake Erie was the most dramatic example of pollution, the other Great Lakes also experienced pollution problems. Explain that since the 1970s people have worked together to try and solve the problems of Great Lakes pollution.

     

    8.    Explain that people have modified, or changed, the environment of Michigan by changing the land as well as the water. Ask students to think of ways in which the land has been changed in their own local community. Possible changes may include clearing land for houses and other buildings, taking up farmland, building roads, etc.

     

    9.    Share the following information regarding changes to the land in Michigan:

      • Over the years, Michigan has lost millions of acres of good farmland and open spaces as urban areas have sprawled into rural areas.
      • According to the Michigan Environmental Council, Michigan is losing over five acres of open space and farmland every hour. This land is being used for developments like houses and shopping malls.
      • To create more space for buildings, wetlands have been filled. Over half the wetlands of Michigan have already been destroyed.
      • Many coastal areas of Michigan have been changed. This has left Michigan shorelines in danger. Problems include overdevelopment of shoreline areas, erosion, contamination of beaches, and sand dune mining.

     

    10. Explain that the human activities that led to environmental changes often had positive economic consequences. For example, farming and lumbering helped Michigan grow and develop. Cities provided places for people to live and find jobs. Development along coastal areas helped bring in tourists. Explain that people often have to balance environmental concerns with economic concerns.

     

    11. Explain that sometimes people are limited by what they can do to the environment and they can’t always change it to fit them. In fact, sometimes people have to change in order to fit their environment. Using Word Card #39, explain that geographers call this ‘adapting to the environment.’

     

    12. Pose the following question: People in Michigan can’t keep winter from coming even if they hate the snow, so what are some ways people adapt to winter in Michigan? Discuss student responses. Note that possible answers include that people have warm coats, people buy snow shovels or snow blowers, people put salt on their sidewalks, etc.

     

    13. Make and display an overhead of “Comparing Two Houses” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 7). Explain that the top house is a home located in California and bottom house is a home located in Michigan. Pose the following question: why do these houses look so different? Discuss student responses and guide students to the idea that the geography of California and Michigan is quite different. People have adapted to the different environments by building different kinds of houses.

     

    14. Discuss and compare the two houses using the following questions:

    ·         Why is the roof of the California house flat and the roof of the Michigan house peaked?

    ·         Which house is likely to have a furnace? Why?

    ·         Which house is likely to have an air conditioner? Why?

    ·         Which house is the most likely to have a basement? Why? (Michigan, due to California earthquakes)

    ·         Why is the landscaping around each house so different?

    ·         Why do you think the California house has more windows?

    ·         Which house is likely to have both window screens and storm windows? Why?

    ·         Which house is likely to have the most insulation? Why?

     

    15. Briefly share the following additional examples of adaptation to the environment of Michigan:

    ·         People in Michigan grow apples instead of oranges. Why? Because orange trees need a warmer climate like that of Florida.

    ·         People in Michigan often like water sports because there are so many lakes.

    ·         People in Michigan often own both a snow blower and a lawn mower. Why?

     

    16. Return once again to the book “A River Ran Wild” and ask students to identify examples of adaptation from the book. Note that possible answers include:

    ·         The Native Americans learned to make their houses out of cattails because the riverbanks provided these materials.

    ·         The Native Americans planted corn and squash because they were crops that would grow in forest clearings.

    ·         People stopped swimming in the river because it had become so polluted.

     

    17. Explain that students will have the opportunity to explore more examples of how people modified and adapted to the environment of Michigan in the subsequent unit on Michigan history.

     

    Assessment

    An assessment in which students identify three ways in which people have modified the environment of Michigan and two ways in which people have adapted to the environment of Michigan has been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 7).  
     
    Lesson 8:  Michigan and the Theme of Regions

     

    Big Ideas of the Lesson

     

     

    ·         To study a place geographers ask the question: How is the place connected to other places?

    ·         To answer that question geographers study how people, goods and ideas move?

    ·         Geographers also study why people, goods, ideas and jobs move.

    ·         The Great Lakes are very important in moving goods within, to and out of Michigan.

    ·         Sometimes things move into an area that people don’t want like zebra mussels.

     

     

     

    Lesson Focus Questions:
    G2.0.1:
    • What is a region?
    • How is Michigan divided into regions?
    G2.0.2:
    • What regions of the U.S. does Michigan belong?
    • Can you label these regions on a map?

     

    Content Expectations:

    3-G2.0.1      Use a variety of visual materials and data sources to describe ways in which

                         Michigan can be divided into regions.

    3-G2.0.2     Describe different regions to which Michigan belongs (e.g., Great Lakes Region,

                         Midwest).

     

    Key Concepts: regions

     

    Lesson Vocabulary: 

    G2.0.1: region

    G2.0.2:  Great Lakes, Midwest

     

    Students will know: 

    G2.0.1:  the regions of Michigan

    G2.0.2:  regions to which Michigan belongs 

    Students will be able to: 

    G2.0.1: divide Michigan into regions with visual representations

    G2.0.2:  explain why Michigan belongs to the Midwest and Great Lakes regions

    Student friendly language:

    G2.0.1:  I can use a map of Michigan to label its regions.

    G2.0.2:  I can use a U.S. map to show how Michigan belongs to the Great Lakes and Midwest regions.

     

    Abstract:  This lesson expands upon the concept of region by having students invent ways to divide Michigan into regions. Students compare the Lower Peninsula and Upper Peninsula of Michigan and then explore other ways in which Michigan can be divided into regions based on common characteristics (e.g., the Thumb, the Fruit Belt). Finally students examine regions to which Michigan belongs. (e.g., Great Lakes Region, Midwest).

      

    Handouts:

     

    Lesson Resources 

     G2.0.1

    G2.0.2

    United Streaming Resources:

    G2.0.2

    • American Geography Close Ups: The Midwest Volume I (20:00)
    • Moving to America: Then and Now (19:00)

     

    Instructional Resources

    Equipment/Manipulative

    Overhead projector or document camera/projector

    Student journal or notebook

    Wall map of Michigan or overhead of a Michigan map

     

    Student Resource

    Bergel, Colin and Koenig, Mark. Mail by the Pail. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2001.

     

    Photographs of the J.W. Westcott. 10 July 2009 <http://www.boatnerd.com/pictures/special/westcott/mailpailsouthdown.htm>.

     

    Teacher Resource

    Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 8). Teacher-made material. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum, 2009.

     

    Gibbons, Gail. The Great St. Lawrence Seaway. New York: Harper Collins, 1992.

     

    Great Lakes and Seaway Shipping. 10 July 2009 <http://www.boatnerd.com/>.

     

    High Speed Rail Map. 10 July 2009 http://www.businessinsider.com/obamas-sweeping-high-speed-rail-plans-2009-4 .

     

    Michigan Maps. Michigan Advantage.org. 10 July 2009 <http://www.michiganadvantage.org/Reference/Maps/Default.aspx>.

     

    St. Lawrence Seaway Map. 10 July 2009 <http://www.lre.usace.army.mil/_storage/Pages/1721/seaway(SLSMC).jpg>.

     

    Zebra Mussel Photos from the National Atlas. 10 July 2009 <http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/biology/a_zm.html%3e.

     
    Lesson Sequence

    1.    Remind students that geographers study a place by asking questions and trying to find the answers to the questions. Review the geographic questions explored in the previous lessons:

      • Where is Michigan located?
      • What is Michigan like?
      • What are the important natural (physical) characteristics of Michigan?
      • What are the important human characteristics of Michigan?
      • How have people used the natural resources of Michigan?
      • How many people changed the environment of Michigan?
      • How many people adapted to the environment of Michigan?

     

    2.    Explain that geographers are also interested in how Michigan is connected to other places. Using Word Card #40, explain that geographers relate this question to the theme of movement. Geographers believe that places are connected together by people, goods, and ideas moving from place to place.

     

    3.    Ask students to work with a partner to generate a list of ways ideas currently move between people and places. Give students time to compile their lists and then have them share with the whole class. Make a master list of their ideas on an overhead transparency or board. Possible answers include: telephone, television, radio, mail, fax machine, books, newspapers, and computers/Internet. Note that you may want to spend a little time talking about how the Internet has greatly increased the amount and speed of movement of ideas.

     

    4.    Remind students that people and goods move as well as ideas. With the entire class, have students brainstorm ways in which people, and goods currently move in and out of Michigan. Possible answers include: ships, trains, trucks, cars, buses, airplanes, etc. Using Word Card #41, explain that these methods of transportation, or ways of moving goods and people, connect Michigan not only to the rest of the United States, but also the world.

     

    5.    Display an overhead of the “Major Highways of Michigan Map” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 8). Ask students in what context they explored this map in a previous lesson and guide them to the idea that this special purpose map was used to explore the human characteristics of highways and cities. Explain to the class that Michigan has about 122,000 miles of highways. Out of this, about 1,200 miles are interstate freeways.  Explain that these roads move goods and people in and out of Michigan, as well as within Michigan.

     
    6.    Pose the following question: What are some reasons people would move from one place to another within Michigan? Discuss student responses. Note that possible answers include for travel, to visit people, to permanently change locations, etc. Explain that the movement of people in Michigan will be explored in more depth in the lessons on Michigan history.

     
    7.    Explain that one of the reasons people currently move within and out of Michigan is because of jobs.  In fact, sometimes jobs move themselves. For example because of problems in the automobile industry, engineering jobs have ‘moved to other states.’ This has caused engineers to move to these places in order to find a job.

     
    8.    Using the unit graphic organizer for this lesson point out that besides ideas and people moving, goods move also. Pose the following questions: Why do goods move? Why don’t goods just stay in the place where they are made? Discuss students’ responses to these questions and guide students in understanding that certain places make or grow certain kinds of goods but no place makes everything it needs. Therefore, goods have to move from one place to another. For example, cars made in the Detroit area are moved to the Upper Peninsula where they are sold and lumber from the Upper Peninsula moves to the Lower Peninsula. Explain that students will have an opportunity to learn more about his idea in the Economics unit.

     

    9.    Display an overhead of the “North America’s Hub Map: located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 8).Ask students to describe what this map shows. Note that they will probably state something like: It shows roads connecting Michigan to other places in the United States. Guide them in making their answer more explicit with probing questions such as “What kind of roads does it show?” and “Why is the word “hub” used in the title? What does the term “hub” mean?” Discuss that the map shows interstate highways. These are federal roads built and maintained by the national government. Point out how the highways radiate out from Detroit creating a “hub.” This shows how goods can be moved to and from Michigan. Give students Word Card #42, which further explains the term ‘hub’.

     

    10. Explain that airplanes, trucks, and cars are now major ways that goods and people move into and out of Michigan, but there is another important way also. Ask students if they can think of what this might be. Discuss responses and guide them to the idea that ships are still an important way that people and goods move, especially goods.

     

    11. Display an overhead of the “Commercial Ports of Michigan Map: located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 8) and give students Word Card #43, ‘port’. Explain that Michigan has 38 deep-water ports. All of these ports are connected to the Atlantic Ocean by way of the St. Lawrence Seaway system. Display an overhead of the “St. Lawrence Seaway Map” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 8), and trace the route from Lake Superior through the St. Lawrence system.  Share the following information about the Great Lakes System with students.

      • This system provides transportation for an average of 168 million tons of freight per year.
      • Most freight is carried by Great Lakes freighters. These are larger than most ocean-going vessels. They are specially designed to carry large, heavy loads in the deep waters of the lakes. 
      • The Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway form a 2,000-mile water highway connecting the heart of North America with the Atlantic Ocean.

    12. To extend their understanding of shipping read the book “Mail by the Pail” which describes life on a freighter from the point of view of a father and daughter. Note that actual photos of the mailboat featured in the book can be found at the following website: <http://www.boatnerd.com/pictures/special/westcott/mailpailsouthdown.htm>.  

     

    13. Display an overhead of the “Railroads of Michigan Map” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 8).  Ask students to carefully look at the map and think of ways to describe the pattern of railroads in Michigan. Discuss student responses. Possible answers include:
    • Most Lower Peninsula railroads radiate out from Detroit.
    • Other important Lower Peninsula railroad centers are Grand Rapids and Saginaw.
    • Escanaba is the main railroad center of the Upper Peninsula.
    • The Upper Peninsula has fewer railroads.
    • A railroad follows the Lake Huron shoreline along the eastern coast of Michigan.
    • Railroads connect Michigan with Canada, Chicago and Green Bay.

    14. Display an overhead of the “Vision for High Speed Rail Map” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 8), and explain that this map shows the plan for a future railroad system. Point out how Michigan is a part of this plan. Explain that this system would allow a person to travel between Detroit and Chicago in just 2 hours, a trip that currently takes about 6 hours. Pose the following question: How might this high speed system impact Michigan? Discuss student responses.

     
    15. Explain that the examples of the movement of ideas, people, and goods studied in the lesson so far all have fairly positive consequences. However, movement can have negative consequences also. Explain that sometimes things move into Michigan that the people of Michigan do not want. Ask students if they can think of any examples. Discuss student responses and guide students to the idea that sometimes insects or other animals move to Michigan and do damage here. Explain that one good example is the zebra mussel that has caused problems in the Great Lakes. Share the following information about this “migrant.”
      • Zebra mussels are believed to have traveled here in ballast water in ships. Ships take on ballast water from the sea to stabilize the ships weight when they have no cargo.
      • Ships dump ballast water in order to take on cargo, and sea creatures that are in the ballast water get into the Great Lakes.

     

    16. Explain that students will now be working with a partner or in a small group to learn more about zebra mussels and then sharing what they learned with the rest of the class. Divide up students so you have ten groups. Give each group one of the “Zebra Mussel Information Cards” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 8). Explain that groups should work together to create a short presentation, including a visual, that will teach the information on their card to the rest of the group. Note that the cards allow for differentiation since some will be much easier to prepare for a presentation than others. Also note that a collection of photographs of zebra mussels has been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 8) to assist students in creating their visuals.

     

    17. Give students time to create their short presentations and then have them present them to the rest of the class.

     

     

    Assessment

    An assessment in which students answer questions about the theme of movement and Michigan has been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 1, Lesson 8).     

     

Last Modified on October 3, 2018