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    Unit 4: How Do People Work Together in a Community?

     

     

    Overarching Question:
    How do people's choices impact a community? 

     

    Previous Unit:
     
    How Do People Live Together in a Community?

     

     

     

     

    This Unit:
     
    How Do People
    Work Together in
    a Community?
    Next Unit:
     
    How Do Communities Change?

     

     Big Picture Graphic 

    Questions to Focus Assessment and Instruction:
     
    1. How do scarcity, choice, and opportunity cost impact  
        economic decision making? 
    2. How do people and businessed interact to meet
        economic wants?
    Types of Thinking:
     
    Cause and Effect
    Descriptive
    Classification 

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Unit Abstract: In this unit students explore several economic concepts using the context of their local community. The unit begins with a review of the concepts of scarcity and choice from previous grades. Through simulation and literature such as Sam and the Lucky Money or a similar book, students are introduced to the concept of opportunity cost. Using a graphic organizer, students apply these concepts to an economic decision and identify the opportunity cost. Next, using the book The Goat in the Rug or a similar book, students explore how natural, human, and capital resources are combined to produce goods. Students then examine how businesses in a community help people meet their economic wants. Using a variety of resources, students identify businesses in their local community and connect the businesses with wants and needs they help to meet. In a culminating lesson students are introduced to the concept of specialization through an activity that compares trade from the past with the present. Using The Ox Cart Man or a similar book, all economic concepts addressed in the unit are reviewed and assessed.

     

    Focus Questions:
     
    1. How do scarcity, choice, and opportunity cost impact economic decision making?
    2. How do people and businesses interact to meet economic wants?
     

     

    Content Expectations:
    1 - E1.0.3: Using examples, explain why people cannot have everything they want (scarcity) and describe how people respond (choice).

    2 - E1.0.1:

    Identify the opportunity cost involved in a consumer decision.

     

    2 - E1.0.2:

    Identify businesses in the local community.

     

    2 - E1.0.3:

    Describe how businesses in the local community meet economic wants of consumers.

    2 - E1.0.4:

    Describe the natural, human, and capital resources needed for production of a good or service in a community.

    2 - E1.0.5:

    Use examples to show that people cannot produce everything they want (specialization) and depend on trade with others to meet their wants.

    Integrated GLCE’s

    R.IT.02.02: Discuss informational text patterns including descriptive, sequential, enumerative, and compare/contrast. (English Language Arts)

    R.IT.02.03: Explain how authors use text features including boldface text, graphs, maps, diagrams, and charts to enhance the understanding of key and supporting ideas. (English Language Arts)

     

    Key Concepts: businesses, capital resources, choice, economic decision making, economic wants, human resources, natural resources, opportunity cost, production, scarcity, specialization, trade

     

     

    Lesson Sequence:

    Lesson 1: Scarcity and Choice

    Lesson 2: Opportunity Cost

    Lesson 3: Using Natural Resources to Produce Goods and Services

    Lesson 4: Resources: Natural, Human, and Capital

    Lesson 5: Businesses in our Local Community

    Lesson 6: Specialization and Trade
     
    I Can Statements:
     
    I can explain economic wants, choice, and scarcity.
     
    I can describe the opportunity cost in making a decision.
     
    I can describe natural, human, and capital resources that are needed to make goods and services.
     
    I can describe how businesses help my community.
     
    I can give reasons why businesses specialize and trade with one another.

     

    Resources: 

     

    Equipment/Manipulatives

    Overhead Projector or Document Camera and Projector

    Chart Paper and Markers
     
    Student Resources
     
    Andrews, Carolyn. Goods and Services.  Crabtree Publishing, 2008.
     
    Blood, Charles & Link, Martin. The Goat in the Rug. New York: Aladin Paperbacks 1990.
     
    Chinn, Karen.

    Sam and the Lucky Money. New York: Lee and Low, 1997.

     

     

    Hall, Donald. The Ox Cart Man. New York: Viking Junior Books, 1979.
     
    Loewen, Nancy. Lemons and Lemonade: A Book About Supply and Demand. Picture Window Books, 2005. (Related books include Save, Spend, or Donate, In the Money: A Book about Banking, and Cash, Credit Cards, or Checks)
     
    Marshall, Pam.

    From Tree to Paper (Start to Finish Series). Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications, 2003. (one copy for each two students)

     
    Miller, Jake. Community Needs: Meeting Needs and Wants in Communities.  Rosen Publishing Group, 2004.
     
    Pellegrino, Marjorie White. My Grandma’s the Mayor. New York: Magination Press, 1999
     
    R., Adil & Janeen. Goods and Services (First Facts). Capstone Press, 2006
     
    R., Adil & Janeen. Needs and Wants (First Facts). Capstone Press, 2008
     
    R., Adil & Janeen. Scarcity (First Facts). Capstone Press, 2006
     
    R., Adil & Janeen. Supply and Demand (First Facts). Capstone Press, 2006
     
    Ring, Susan. Needs & Wants. Yellow Umbrella Books, 2003
     

     

    Teacher Resources

    Channell, Geanie, et. Al. Focus: Grades K-2 Economics. National Council on Economic Education, 2007.

     

    Econ and Me Video Series and Teachers’ Guide.

    National Council on Economic Education. 1995.

    Economics Posters

    . 3 July 2008 <https://www.kidseconposters.com/>.

     

    Heyse, Kathy and Day Harlan.

    Half-Pint Economics for Kids. Indiana Council for Economic Education, 2004

     

    Norris, Jill.

    My Community, A Complete Thematic Unit. Monterey, CA: Evan-Moor Educational Publishers, 1996.

     

    Resources for Further Professional Knowledge

     

    Michigan Council on Economic Education

    . 3 July 2008 <www.mceeonline.org>.

     

     

    National Council on Economic Education

    . 3 July 2008 <https://www.councilforeconed.org/>.

     

     

    Online Lessons for each National Standard.

    3 July 2008

     

    Social Studies Lesson Plans and Resources

    . 3 July 2008

     

     

    Strategies for Teaching Social Studies

    . 3 July 2008

     

    Teaching Social Studies

    . 3 July 2008

    Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics

    . 3 July 2008

     
    United Streaming Resources:
     
    How Our Economy Works: All About Earning and Spending Money (18 min.)
     
    Where We Live, Work, and Play: Businesses (12:07 min.)

     

     

    Lesson 1: Scarcity and Choice

     
    Lesson 1 Supplemental Materials:
     
     

    Content Expectations:

     

    1 - E1.0.3:

    Using examples, explain why people cannot have everything they want (scarcity) and describe how people respond (choice). 

    Key Concepts: choice, economic wants, scarcity

     

    Abstract: In this lesson students build upon their knowledge of the economic concepts of scarcity, choice, wants, and needs. Students review the idea that economic wants are desires that can be satisfied with a good or service. The class brainstorms several economic wants they have and specific goods or services that will satisfy the wants. Students develop an understanding that people cannot have everything they want because of scarcity. In a Turn and Talk activity, students share ideas about what people do when they can’t have everything they want. In a class discussion the teacher explains that because of scarcity, people must make choices. The teacher reads Sam and the Lucky Money or a similar book that involves a child facing scarcity and having to make choices. Students find examples of scarcity and choice as they listen to the book and view the illustrations.

     

    Internet Resources: see above

     

    Lesson 2: Opportunity Cost
     
    Lesson 2 Supplemental Materials:
     

     

    Content Expectations:

     

    2 - E1.0.1:

    Identify the opportunity cost involved in a consumer decision.

     

     

     

    Key Concepts: economic decision making, opportunity cost

     

    Abstract: This lesson introduces students to the concept of opportunity cost. The lesson begins with three student-friendly objects such as a book, a small toy, and a bag of candy which cost around $5.00 each. Students imagine that they have enough money to purchase only one of the objects. Students write down what they would like to buy as their first, second, and third choices. The term ‘opportunity cost’ is written on a chalkboard or overhead transparency. The teacher explains that every time a choice is made there are other things that are not chosen. The next best choice or alternative you do not choose is called your opportunity cost. Circling their second choice, students identify this as their opportunity cost. Students review the economic choice Sam made in the book Sam and the Lucky Money and identify Sam’s opportunity cost. Students are introduced to an economic decision-making model and graphic organizer. Using the model the teacher demonstrates how to evaluate alternatives to make a choice. (Suggestions for this can be found in Lesson 7 (Let’s Make a Choice) of the National Council on Economic Education’s Focus on Economics for Grades K-2 or the Decision Tree Lesson from the video series Teachers’ Guide for Econ and Me). Students use the decision making model and graphic organizer to make an economic decision based on three choices given by the teacher and identify the opportunity cost of the decision.

     

     

    Internet Resources: see above

     

     

     

     

    Lesson 3: Using Natural Resources to Produce Goods and Services
     
    Lesson 3 Supplemental Materials:
     

     

    Content Expectations:

    2 - E1.0.4:

    Describe the natural, human, and capital resources needed for production

     

    of a good or service in a community

     

    Integrated GLCEs:

    R.IT.02.02: Discuss informational text patterns including descriptive, sequential, enumerative, and compare/contrast. (English Language Arts)

     

     

    R.IT.02.03:

    Explain how authors use text features including boldface text, graphs, maps, diagrams, and charts to enhance the understanding of key and supporting ideas. (English Language Arts)

     

    Key Concepts: natural resources, production

     

    Abstract: This lesson shows how natural resources are used to produce goods and services and also introduces informational text features. Students review the term natural resources and create a class list of natural resources such as trees, soil, water, and minerals. The teacher shows students a picture of a tree. In small groups students brainstorm products that can be made from trees. Groups share their ideas as the teacher creates a master class list of tree products. Paired students are given a copy of the book From Tree to Paper (from the Start to Finish series) or a similar book that shows production of a good or service from a natural resource. The teacher points out various text features included in the book such as boldface text, illustrations, a table of contents, a glossary, etc. Next, the teacher asks pairs to read the book together. Students then discuss the main ideas of the book. Students turn to a page in the book where a descriptive text pattern is evident (such as page 12) as the teacher explains how authors use this text pattern. Students then turn to a page in the book where a sequential text pattern is evident (such as page 16). The teacher reads the text section out loud and explains how this is an example of sequential text. Student pairs then find other examples of descriptive and sequential text patterns.

     

     

    Internet Resources: see above

     

    Lesson 4: Resources: Natural, Human, and Capital
     
    Lesson 4 Supplemental Materials:
     

     

    Content Expectations:

     

    2 - E1.0.4:

    Describe the natural, human, and capital resources needed for production of a good or service in a community

     

     

    Key Concepts: capital resources, human resources, natural resources, production

     

    Abstract: This lesson introduces students to the concepts of human, natural, and capital resources. Students are given a three-column chart labeled Human Resource, Natural Resource, and Capital Resource. Below each term a brief definition is provided. For example natural resource might be defined as those things found in or on earth or “gifts of nature”. Human resource might be defined as people doing mental or physical work to produce goods or services. Capital resource can be defined as things made by people (e.g. tools, buildings, equipment) used to produce other goods and services. The class brainstorms a list of the natural, human, and capital resources found in the classroom. The teacher reads the book, The Goat in the Rug or a similar book. After discussing the story, students are given copies of picture boxes that illustrate the resources needed to produce a rug found in the story and a copy of the resource chart. Working in pairs students cut out the pictures and place them in the columns under the correct heading on the chart.

     

     

    Internet Resources: see above

     

     
     
    Lesson 5: Businesses in our Local Community
     
    Lesson 5 Supplemental Materials:
     

     

    Content Expectations:

     

    2 - E1.0.2:

    Identify businesses in the local community.

     

     

    2 - E1.0.3:

    Describe how businesses in the local community meet economic wants of consumers.

     

    Key Concepts: businesses, economic wants

     

    Abstract:  In this lesson students explore businesses in their own local community. Using a T-Chart with one column labeled Wants and the other Business, the class creates a list of economic wants that consumers have and businesses that meet those wants. For example, the economic want of food could be met by a grocery store. Students identify which of the businesses on the T-Chart are located in their community. Then using a variety of resources including community maps, a local business directory, phone books, and the Internet, students identify additional businesses in their local community. As an optional project, the class creates a business directory with photos or illustrations of each business and the economic wants the business meets.

     

     

    Internet Resources: see above

     

    Lesson 6: Specialization and Trade
     
    Lesson 6 Supplemental Materials:
     

     

    Content Expectations:

    2 - E1.0.5: Use examples to show that people cannot produce everything they want (specialization) and depend on trade with others to meet their wants.

     

    Key Concepts: specialization, trade

     

    Abstract: In this lesson students explore the economic concepts of specialization and trade. The lesson begins with the teacher describing a scenario describing a family from the past. The family makes their own clothes, grows their own food, grinds their own wheat for bread, makes their own candles, etc. Using a T-Chart with one column labeled Then and the other, Now, students compare the family in the scenario with a family today. For example, under the “Then” column the teacher writes “makes their own clothes” and on the “Now” side writes ”buys clothes at a store.” The teacher concludes the activity by explaining that people today cannot produce everything they need so they must trade with others to meet their wants. Students review the idea from first grade that people use money to get the things they need. As a culminating activity, the teacher reads the book, The Ox-Cart Man or a similar book. Students identify three goods the family in the story produces and the natural, human, and capital resources needed to make each good. Students describe how the family obtained the other goods they needed such as the large pot. Finally, students are asked to identify one economic choice the ox-cart man made and the opportunity cost he incurred as a result.

     

     

     

     

     

    Last Modified on 1/20/2009 2:08:44 PM

     

Last Modified on October 3, 2018