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    Unit 3: How Do Citizens Live Together in a Community?

     

     

    Overarching Question:

     

    How do people live together in a community? 

     

    Previous Unit:
     
    Where is My Community and What is it Like There?

     

     

     

     

    This Unit:
     
    How Do Citizens Live Together in a Community?
    Next Unit:
     
    How Do People Work Together in a Community?

       

    Big Picture Graphic

      

    Questions to Focus Assessment and Instruction:
     
    1. What is the purpose of government?
    2. What does our local government do?
    3. What are important roles and responsibilities of 
        citizens in a community?

    Types of Thinking:

     

    Cause and Effect
    Descriptive

     

     

     

     

    Unit Abstract: In this unit students explore many important civics concepts using the context of local government. The unit begins with a lesson that explores diversity in communities and also reviews why people live in communities. Then, students explore the reasons people form governments including the need for laws, safety, and order. In a lesson on core democratic values and how they create a foundation for government students are introduced to the values of the common good, individual rights, and patriotism. Students then explore the meaning and importance of the Pledge of Allegiance. Using the example of school rules as a springboard, students next examine the reasons communities need laws. Then, they learn how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws. Students compare narrative text and informational text as they learn about the role mayors play in local government. This serves as an introduction to for the next lesson on different functions of local government. In a final lesson on citizenship students learn about the roles and responsibilities of citizens in local government. As a culminating activity, students take part in a simple simulation of a town council meeting where they have to decide whether to buy a new police car or new playground equipment for a local park.

     

    Focus Questions:
     
    1. What is the purpose of government?
    2. What does our local government do?
    3. What are important roles and responsibilities of citizens in a community?

     

    Content Expectations:

    2 - C1.0.1:

    Explain why people form governments.

     

    2 - C1.0.2:

    Distinguish between government action and private action.

     

    2 - C2.0.1:

    Explain how local governments balance individual rights with the common good to solve local community problems.

    2 - C2.0.2:

    Describe how the Pledge of Allegiance reflects the core democratic value of patriotism.

     

    2 - C3.0.1:

    Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.

     

    2 - C3.0.2:

    Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.

     

    2 - C3.0.3:

    Identify services commonly provided by local governments (e.g., police, fire departments, schools, libraries, parks).

     

    2 - G4.0.3:

    Use components of culture (e.g., foods, language, religion, traditions) to describe diversity in the local community.

     

    2 - C5.0.1:

    Identify ways citizens participate in community decisions.

     

     

    2 - C5.0.2:

    Distinguish between personal and civic responsibilities and explain why they are important in community life.

    Integrated GLCEs

    R.NT.02.03: Identify and describe characters’ actions and motivations, setting (time and place), problem/solution, and sequence of events. (English Language Arts)

     

     

    R.NT.02.05:

    Respond to individual and multiple texts by finding evidence, discussing,illustrating, and/or writing to reflect, make connections, take a position, and/or show understanding. (English Language Arts)

    R.CM.02.01:

    Make text-to-self and text-to-text connections and comparisons by activating prior knowledge, connecting personal knowledge, experience, and understanding of others to ideas in text through oral and written responses. (English Language Arts)

     

    Key Concepts: branches of government, citizen, city council, civic responsibility, common good, community, core democratic values, court, diversity, government, individual rights, laws, mayor, patriotism 

     

    Lesson Sequence:

    Lesson 1: Living Together in a Community

    Lesson 2: Why Do People Form Governments?

    Lesson 3: What do Core Democratic Values have to do with Government?

    Lesson 4: What is the Pledge of Allegiance and Why is it Important?

    Lesson 5: Why do Communities Need Laws?

    Lesson 6: How is Our Local Government Organized?

    Lesson 7: What Does our Local Government Do?

    Lesson 8: What are some of the Roles and Responsibilities of Citizens in our Local Community?

    I Can Statements: 
     
    I can describe different foods, languages, religions, and traditions in my community.
     
    I can explain why people form governments.
     
    I can explain how governments help people.
     
    I can describe important symbols of our country.
     
    I can explain why we need laws.
     
    I can tell the difference between civic and personal responsibilities.
     
     

    Resources:

    Equipment/Manipulative

    Overhead Projector or Document Camera and Projector

    Chart Paper and Markers
     

    Student Resources

    Blos. Joan.

    Old Henry. New York: HarperCollins, 1990

     
    Cheyette Lewison, Wendy. L is for Liberty. Grosset & Dunlap, 2003
     
    Dooley, Norah. Everybody Bakes Bread. New York: Carolrhoda Books, 1995
     

     

    Dooley, Norah. Everybody Brings Noodles. New York: Carolrhoda Books, 2005
     
    Dooley, Norah. Everybody Cooks Rice. New York: Carolrhoda Books, 1992
     
    Dooley, Norah. Everybody Serves Soup. New York: Carolrhoda Books, 2004
     
    Edwards, Nancy. Mom for Mayor. Cricket Books, 2006
     
    Fox, Mem. Whoever You Are. Voyager Books, 2006
     

     

     

    Harris, Nancy, What’s a City Council? New York: Heinemann, 2007
     

     

     

    - - -. What’s a Mayor? New York: Heinemman, 2007
     
    Kishel, Ann-Marie. Citizenship (First Step Nonfiction Government). Lerner Classroom, 2007
     
    Kishel, Ann-Marie. Rules and Laws (First Step Nonfiction Government) Lerner Classroom, 2007
     
    Kishel, Ann-Marie. What is Government? (First Step Nonfiction Government). Lerner Classroom, 2007
     
    Kuklin, Susan. How My Family Lives in America.  Aladdin Books, 1998
     
    Laks Gorman, Jacqueline. Why Do We Have Laws? (Know Your Government). Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2008
     
    Linz, Kathi. Chicken May Not Cross the Road: and Other Crazy But True Laws. Houghton Mifflin Books, 2002
     
    Loewen, Nancy. Do I Have To? Kids Talk About Responsibility. Picture Window Books, 2005
     
    Loewen, Nancy. We Live Here Too!: Kids Talk About Good Citizenship. Picture Window Books 2005
     
    Mayer, Cassie. Citizenship: Being Responsible. Heinemann Educational Books, 2007
     
    Muschal, Frank. Local Action (Citizens and Their Government). Cherry Lake Publications, 2007
     
    Polacco, Patricia. The Keeping Quilt. Aladdin Books, 2001
     

     

     

    Pellegrino, Marjorie White. My Grandma’s the Mayor. New York: Magination Press, 1999
     
    Scholastic, Inc. Pledge of Allegiance 2001. New York: Scholastic, Inc. 2001
     

     

     

    Your Neighborhood.

    Ben’s Guide to Government. 3 July 2008 http://bensguide.gpo.gov/k- 2/neighborhood/index.html>.

     

     

     

    Teacher Resources

    Martin Jr., Bill; Sampson, Michael and Raschka, Chris. I Pledge Allegiance (Big Book). New York: Candlewick Press, 2005
     

     

    Norris, Jill. My Community, A Complete Thematic Unit. Monterey, CA: Evan-Moor Educational Publishers, 1996.
     
    Parenzan Smalley, Carol. State and Local Government (Reading Essentials in Social Studies) Perfection Learning, 2004
     
    Great Government for Kids. 3 July 2008 <http://www.cccoe.net/govern/index.html>.
     

     

    Resources for Further Professional Knowledge
     

     

    Citizenship Education.

    3 July 2008 http://www.ecs.org/html/educationIssues/CitizenshipEducation/CitEdDB_intro.asp.

     
    Exploring cultural diversity in their own communities. 5 August 2009
     

     

    National Center for Learning and Citizenship.

    3 July 2008 https://www.socialstudies.org/ >.

     

     

    National Alliance for Civic Education

    . 3 July 2008 <http://www.cived.net/>.

     

     

    Social Studies Lesson Plans and Resources

    . 3 July 2008 <http://www.csun.edu/~hcedu013/>.

     
    United Streaming Resources:
     
    Citizenship in the Community (17 min.)
     
    Lesson 1: Living Together in a Community
     
    Lesson 1 Supplemental Materials:
     

     

    Content Expectations:

    2 - G4.0.3:

    Use components of culture (e.g., foods, language, religion, traditions) to describe diversity in the local community.

     

    Key Concepts: community, diversity

     

    Abstract: This lesson begins with a review of what is a community and introduces the concept of diversity. The concept of diversity is illustrated through use of the book Everybody Brings Noodles or a similar book. Following a discussion of the book, students identify examples of diversity in their own community such as differences in food, language, religion or traditions. Next, students brainstorm reasons people live in communities and how diversity strengthens a community.

     

     

     

    Lesson 2: Why Do People Form Governments?
     
    Lesson 2 Supplemental Materials:
     
     

     

    Content Expectations:

    2 - C1.0.1:

    Explain why people form governments.

     

    2 - C3.0.2:

    Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.

     

    Key Concepts: government

     

    Abstract: Using a scenario that describes a second grade student’s journey to school, students discuss examples of rules or laws that affect the student’s journey. They then explore reasons we need rules and laws. Students brainstorm what would happen if everyone could make their own rules and laws. The teacher introduces the concept of government as the way a community ensures a common method of keeping people safe and giving the right or authority to make and enforce rules and laws. Students explore the concept of government and reasons people form governments. Students then complete an open-ended sentence beginning “People form governments because …” and illustrate their idea. Possible answers include: ‘because they want to be safe.’, ‘because they need laws’ and ‘because they need help solving problems.’ Illustrations are gathered together to create a class book entitled Why People Form Governments.

      

    United Streaming Resources:
     
    TLC Elementary School: Understanding Goverment (What is Government? Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness) (24 min.)
     
    Community Rules and Laws: Family, School & Community Rules, Government, and Laws
    (15 min.)
     
    Lesson 3: What do Core Democratic Values have to do with Government?
     
    Lesson 3 Supplemental Materials:
     
     
    Content Expectations:
    2 - C2.0.1:

    Explain how local governments balance individual rights with the common good to solve local community problems.

     
    Integrated GLCEs

    R.NT.02.03:

    Identify and describe characters’ actions and motivations, setting (time and place), problem/solution, and sequence of events. (English Language Arts)

    R.NT.02.05:

    Respond to individual and multiple texts by finding evidence, discussing, illustrating, and/or writing to reflect, make connections, take a position, and/or show understanding. (English Language Arts)

     

    Key Concepts: common good, core democratic values, individual rights

     

    Abstract: The lesson begins with the teacher explaining that governments are founded on important ideas, or values, like individual rights and common good and that often these values are in conflict. Using the book, Old Henry or a similar book, students identify an example of individual rights that conflict with the common good. Before completing the book, the teacher writes the core democratic values of common good and individual rights on a board or overhead transparency and describes how governments try to look out for the common good while protecting individual rights. Working in cooperative groups, students act as the town government and brainstorm solutions to the issue in Old Henry. Groups share their solutions with the class and then the students consider which solution best balances the rights of Old Henry and the common good of the community. Students then listen to the remainder of the book and discuss the outcome.

     
    Lesson 4: What is the Pledge of Allegiance and Why is it Important?
     
    Lesson 4 Supplemental Materials:
     
     
    Content Expectations:

    2 - C2.0.2:

    Describe how the Pledge of Allegiance reflects the core democratic value of patriotism

     

    Key Concepts: patriotism, core democratic values

     

    Abstract: In this lesson students explore the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance as well as the core democratic value of patriotism. The lesson begins with a review of content learned in kindergarten and first grade as the teacher poses the following question, “What are some important symbols of our country?” Then, the teacher shows students an American flag and leads a discussion of why the flag is important. Using the Big Book, I Pledge Allegiance or a similar book, the teacher explains the meaning of each of the phrases in the Pledge. Students are introduced to Pledge etiquette and flag etiquette. Next, the teacher writes the term ‘patriotism’ on the board and explains the term in simple words. Working together the class creates a list of different ways people can show their patriotism. Then, each student chooses one idea from the list and makes a “Patriotism Poster.”

     

     

    Lesson 5: Why do Communities Need Laws?

     

    Lesson 5 Supplemental Materials:
     
     
     
    Content Expectations:
     
    2 - C3.0.1:

    Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.

     

     

    Key Concepts: laws

     

    Abstract: This lesson begins with the teacher asking students to describe what the school would be like without rules. The teacher then explains that just as schools need rules, communities need laws. Next, the teacher shares an example of an ordinance, or law, from the local community. (Examples can be found on a community’s website or through the clerk’s office. Pet laws or laws covering the height of fences are easily understood by second graders.) Students then discuss why they think the law is needed. As a springboard for the next lesson the teacher poses the following question for students to think about, “Who should make the laws in a community?”

     

    Lesson 6: How is Our Local Government Organized
     
    Lesson 6 Supplemental Materials:
     
     

    Content Expectations: 

    2 - C3.0.1:

    Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.

    2 - C3.0.2:

    Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.

     

    Integrated GLCEs

    R.CM.02.01:

    Make text-to-self and text-to-text connections and comparisons by activating prior knowledge, connecting personal knowledge, experience, and understanding of others to ideas in text through oral and written responses. (English Language Arts)

     

     

    Key Concepts: branches of government, city council, court, mayor

     

    Abstract: In this lesson students explore some common ways local governments are organized and then create a graphic organizer illustrating the structure of their own local government. The lesson begins with two different books. The first, My Grandma’s the Mayor,is narrative text and the second, What’s a Mayor?, is informational text. After the teacher shares each book, students are guided in creating a list of important ideas about mayors derived from the two books. Then, students make text-to-text connections and discuss how narrative text differs from informational text in terms of structure, etc. The teacher then briefly describes a common local government structure that includes a mayor and city council. The concept of branches of government is introduced using a graphic representation of a tree with 3 branches of city government. (Trunk labeled government, the three branches representing the mayor, the council, and the court) The teacher reminds students that laws are necessary in a community and explains that a city council makes laws and a mayor enforces them through people like police officers. The teacher then writes the term ‘court’ on a board or overhead transparency and explains that the job of a court is to interpret, or explain, what laws mean. In addition, courts are responsible for handing out punishment to people who break laws. Finally, the teacher guides students in creating a graphic organizer that illustrates the structure of their own local government and compares it to the mayor and city council tree structure.

     

    Lesson 7: What Does Our Local Government Do?
     
    Lesson 7 Supplemental Materials:
     
     
    Content Expectations:

    2- C3.0.2:

    Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.

     

    2 - C1.0.2:

    Distinguish between government action and private action.

     

     

    2 - C3.0.3:

    Identify services commonly provided by local governments (e.g., police, fire departments, schools, libraries, parks).

     

    Key Concepts: government

     

    Abstract: In this lesson students explore some of the functions of local government. The teacher reviews the book, My Grandma’s the Mayor, with students. Students generate a list of different things that local governments do as reflected in the book. Using a local newspaper, the teacher introduces examples that represent local government’s actions. Next, the teacher draws students’ attention to the idea that local governments have power in the community and poses the following question, “Do you think there are limits on what the local government can do?” The teacher then describes a scenario where a mayor enters a family home and demands that the children clean their rooms. Students discuss whether the mayor is allowed to do things like this. The teacher guides students in understanding that this type of government action is not allowed. Next, the teacher poses the question, “Can a parent demand that a child clean their room?” Through a discussion, the teacher guides students in understanding that a parent can take a private action like this. Finally, as a foundational concept for third grade, the teacher explains that states have governments also. State governments take care of problems and issues that affect all the people in a state, whereas local governments take care of problems and issues that affect people living in a specific community.

     

     

    Lesson 8: What are some of the Roles and Responsibilities of Citizens in our Local Community?

     

    Lesson 8 Supplemental Materials:
     
     

    Content Expectations:

     

    2 - C5.0.1:

    Identify ways citizens participate in community decisions.

     

     

    2 - C5.0.2:

    Distinguish between personal and civic responsibilities and explain why they are important in community life.

     

     

    Key Concepts: citizen, civic responsibility

     

    Abstract: In this lesson students explore some roles and responsibilities of citizens in a local community. The lesson begins with a review of responsibilities students have as citizens of their school. Students learn that people who live in a community are citizens and have responsibilities to the community just like a student has school responsibilities. Students review important ideas related to why people form governments, studying values like the common good and individual rights, the organization of local governments, and some of the things governments do. Students explore responsibilities of citizens in a community such as picking up litter, voting, and obeying laws. Students then learn to differentiate between personal responsibilities and civic responsibilities. Showing students a toothbrush, the teacher asks if brushing your teeth is a personal responsibility or a civic responsibility. Working with a partner, students are given a list to classify responsibilities as personal responsibilities or civic responsibilities. Examples could include cleaning up room, helping to clean up a river or doing homework. As a culminating activity students take on the role of a citizen and voice their opinion on whether the community should  purchase a police car or add new playground equipment for a local park. Students learn there are forums for citizens to express their opinions at community meetings.

     

     

     

     

     

    Last Modified on 1/20/2009 2:08:44 PM

     

Last Modified on October 3, 2018